App1 Essay - Bone Cells

1620 WordsJan 2, 20127 Pages
In relation to the skeletal system: a. Outline the structure and function of the main types of cells found in bone. b. Outline the effects of the aging process in the mature skeletal system using osteoarthritis to support your answer. A system is a group of organs arranged together to perform specific functions. The skeletal system is made up of organs (206 bones) and connective tissues such as cartilage, ligaments and joints. This forms a framework to provide the body with support, protection and movement (Thibodeau & Patton, 2005). In the bone there are a number of cells; osteogenic cells, endosteal lining cells (bone lining) and osteoprogenitor cells (Väänänen, Zhao, Mulari & Haleen, 2000). This part of the essay focuses on the osteogenic cells, which are comprised of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes; the main organelles present within these cells and how their delicate ultrastructure enable them to carry out their specialised functions within the skeletal system. Osteoblasts are bone forming cells which develop from young osteoprogenitor cells. They are found in the hard calcified structure of the periosteum, at the site of fracture and at the at the ends of the diaphysis of long bones. Osteoblasts secrete an organic collagen matrix containing mostly type I collagen, called osteoid (Waugh & Grant, 1996). Structurally, osteoblasts are rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and golgi apparatuses. This combination of organelles is concerned with the synthesis of proteins such as the collagen required to lubricate and maintain bone joints (Väänänen et al., 2009). Rough endoplasmic reticulum process new proteins such as fibrous collagen, whilst ribosomes translate single strand ribonucleic acid into proteins which are sorted and modified into proteins by the golgi apparatus. The energy producing mitochondria are essential to the maintenance

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