BASICS OF APA STYLE FOR IN TEXT CITATIONS & REFERENCES
This guide is intended to assist you with APA Style and format for citing references in text and in your reference list. It is meant as a supplement to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th edition.
I. Citing References in Text
APA Style uses the author-date citation system to cite references in text. The complete references for anything you cite in text are listed alphabetically in the reference list at the end of your paper. Only two kinds of materials are cited only in your text (and not listed in the reference list): classical works like the Bible and the Qur’an and references to personal communication. To cite in text, you will include the author’s surname (last name) and the year of publication. Direct quotations should include the page number or specific location of the phrase/sentence in the original work (like the paragraph number). When there is no identified author, you will cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry and the year. You will usually use the title. Put double quotation marks around the title of an article, book chapter, or a webpage. You will italicize the title of a journal/magazine, a book, a brochure, or a report.
One Author: Author (year), (Author, year) First citation in text: Abbott (2007) Subsequent citations in text: Abbott (2007) First parenthetical citation in text: (Abbott, 2007) Subsequent parenthetical citations in text: (Abbott, 2007)
Two Authors: Author and Author (year), (Author and Author, year) First citation in text: Ross and Furno (2011)
Basics of APA Style Guide. Audra M. Deemer, 9/2012. Argosy University Online
Subsequent citations in text: Ross and Furno (2011) First parenthetical citation in text: (Ross & Furno,