Ap World Summer Work Questions and Answers

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Chapter 1: Before History 1. How did the cultivation of food change human life styles? The cultivation of food changed human life styles by giving nomads the option to live in one area. This allowed them to create a complex society, therefore they were able to share ideas and learn from each other. From learning from one another, they learned how to use and make tools, such as cleavers choppers, scrapers, and hand axes. These tools made the cultivation of food easier. 2. Where did complex societies begin and why? Complex societies began in cities. These cities were placed in specific areas. These areas were where food was abundant. They did this so they no longer needed to focus on food and instead could focus on the standard of living and specialized rulers and craftsmen. 3. How did institutions such as class systems and gender roles develop? At first, there were no class distinctions due to the fact that you couldn't measure wealth. The only social distinction would be based off of a trait, such as courage, fertility, or strength. However, once the specialization of labor occurred it was possible for one to accumulate wealth. Therefore, social distinctions came to be. In contrast, gender distinctions happened earlier due to the men leaving and hunting while the women gathered the crops and tended to the children. 4. How did early humans interact with their environment (Paleolithic & Neolithic)? Paleolithic hunted the animals and gathered edible plants and timed their movements so that they coincided with migration patterns and the life cycle of plants. The Neolithic cultivated plants and herded animals. They slashed and burned the forests and settled in permanent villages. 5. What were the economies of early complex societies like? What was produced/manufactured? Paleolithic had a hunter-gatherer
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