Ap World Ch3 Notes Essay

1516 WordsSep 4, 20137 Pages
The Question of Origins A. First Civilizations had their roots in the Agricultural Revolution B. First Civilizations tended to develop from earlier, competing chiefdoms that already had some social rank and economic specialization C. process was gradual and evolutionary D. why did some chiefdoms develop into civilizations and others did not? 1. one argument: the need to organize large-scale irrigation projects (archeologists have found that these projects appeared long after civilizations began) 3.another argument: the needs of elite groups, warfare, and trade all played roles as well 2.Robert Carneiro’s argument: population density created competition, especially when agricultural land was limited E. the creation of the First Civilizations was quick by world history standards but was an unconscious undertaking for those involved F. all First Civilizations relied on highly productive agriculture An Urban Revolution A. cities were one of the most distinctive features of First Civilizations B. the scale, layout, and specialized industries of cities would have impressed visitors from villages C. cities lay at the heart of all First Civilizations because they were: 1.political/administrative capitals 2.centers of cultural production—art, architecture, literature, ritual, and ceremony 3.places of local and long-distance exchange 4.centers of manufacturing activity D. cities produced new societies with greater specialization and inequality Hierarchies of Class A. First Civilizations had vast inequalities in wealth, status, and power B. civilizations multiplied and magnified inequalities that already existed in complex gathering and hunting societies and agricultural chiefdoms C. these new levels of inequality represent one of the major turning points in the social history of humankind D. upper classes: 1.enjoyed great

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