Emma Culloty BIRMI2A 11 Evaluate the extent to which Freud’s theory of psychosexual development can help us to understand a Client’s presenting issue. Freud’s theory of psychosexual development is a theory that has caused a large amount of debate and can be seen as quite a contentious issue, particularly when using this theory to try and understand a client’s presenting issue. This essay will look into Freud’s psychosexual theory and will describe how it relates to adult neurotic behaviour. The essay will then look at the critiques of Carl Jung and Erich Fromm and will look at the ideas surrounding Jung’s collective consciousness and Fromm’s view based on a sociological perspective, where the person is able to decide for them and how problems can arise for a client when this does not happen. This essay will also look at the role of women and homosexuality and discuss whether Freud’s views where based on a cultural prejudice when he devised the psychosexual theory.
The untrained individuals would look at psychopathology as being a study of mental disorders on the mere manifestation of different behaviors. However, we in the field of psychology would determine what is by going through the basics. It is commonly referred to as abnormal psychology which is the clear understanding of nature, certain treatments, and the many different causes. There are several ways in fact to where individuals in the field of psychology may use to explain psychology. For example, one psychologist may use descriptive psychopathology to which will strive to provide answers for symptoms or mental illness.
After the accident it appeared that he had become someone completely different exhibiting behaviors that were opposite of his core personality. Contributions to Cognitive Psychology “I think therefore I am” this famous quote by Rene Descartes can easily sum up the human condition. However it raises the question “where does thought come from?” In the study of cognitive psychology the examination of the brain is essential to understanding how and where thought originates. Early on in the science of psychology two standard schools of thought prevailed, the holistic and the phrenology or the idea that cognitive capabilities are separated throughout the brain. Although both have something to offer neither can claim full victory over truth.
By establishing differences between psychiatry and psychology,how counselling and psychotherapy emerged from these disciplines becomes clearer.Psychiatry relates to the process of healing the mind through medical intervention.Psychology has its roots within academic study and research of human and animal perception.Psychoanalysis is ‘interested in exploration of the unconscious mind in order to cure’. [psychoanalysis-techniques]From Freud,,the seeds of contemporary counselling and psychotherapy practice were sown.The journey to it’s current position is neither rigid or fixed within it’s application of ideas.Perhaps becoming more apparent by viewing current practice as originating from the same tree root but realizing itself as different branches inevitably intertwining and overlapping.The position of many of the originators of psychotherapeutic theories were within psychology Nelson-Jonesand their ideas permeated through to counselling and psychotherapy and discussed as follows: From my research I established the view that there are three main schools of thought.The psychodynamic;the humanistic-existential and the cognitive-behavioural schools.For the
Issues of Bias in the Diagnosis Systems – 25 marks. Beth Phillips Classification of Mental Disorders uses the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). These are the 2 main classification systems is based on the biological or medical model of abnormality. Clinical psychologists aim to classify disorders so a label can be applied and treatment proposed. Behaviourist and cognitive models place less importance on identifying syndromes and more focus on identifying symptoms that need to be removed.
It could be argued it doesn't really help the patient; it just makes their behavior more acceptable to others. As well patient’s behavior may just be superficial. They might only produce desirable behavior knowing they’re going to receive a token. Showing that token economy isn't
Nevertheless, criminologists continue to find useful aspects of old studies even from discredited psychological theories, like psychoanalysis (Williams & McShane, 2009). Personality and Criminal Behavior in Psychological Positivism As psychology became a credible source of insight into human behavior, criminologists began using this perspective to define the origins of deviant personalities. Within psychology are various models that explain behavior, some of which include psychoanalysis, learning theory, and cognitive development. Although these philosophies are similar, each perspective provides a unique viewpoint on the causes of criminal behavior (Flowe, 1996). Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis, a system developed by Sigmund Freud in the early 1900s, describes behaviors as the result of one’s ability to control drives and impulses.
Purely physiological explanations for mental illnesses tend toward assuming that what happens in the chemistry of the brain should replace what is sometimes called the “mind.” But psychological explanations of depression emphasize that the mind and body are distinct. Though psychologists usually recognize the affect of the brain on the mind, they tend to emphasize personal experiences, ways of thinking and learned behavior. Many of the proposed psychological causes for depression could also be explained or understood in terms of underlying spiritual issues. We will consider this below, but in this section the terms are laid out as they are explained by secular psychologists. Psychoanalytical Explanations.