For instance, “the sale of indulgences for the benefit of the church of Rome specifically for the rebuilding of St. Peters Cathedral provoked harsh criticism, especially by those who saw the luxuries of the papacy as a betrayal of apostolic ideals ” (Fiero 119). Martin Luther stated a list of objections, called the Ninety-Five Theses, against the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant Reformation changed the course of Western civilization for the long term which led to the impact on the arts using Northern Renaissance art, music and literature. Protestant reformers made two new printmaking processes, which were woodcut and engraving. Compared to the too expensive hand-illuminated manuscripts, books with printed pictures became an inexpensive option for all (Fiero 127).
This Theses was addressed to Pope Leo X, who was building St Peter’s. Luther was angered about this and made his opinion in the Theses that if the pope could open the doors of purgatory for people who paid, why could he not open them for all people.Luther published other scriptures against the sale of indulgences, his letter to Albrecht of Mainz and the explanation of the 95 Theses. His initial writings were catalysts in the course of the reformation, it was Luther’s anger and bravery that began the Reformation. Luther continued to publish impactful works, in 1520 he released To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, where Luther outlined the doctrine of the Priesthood of all believers and denied the authority of the Pope to interpret, or confirm interpretation of the Bible, On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and On the Freedom of a Christian. These publications all became influential as they were able to spread around Germany through the German printing press and were allowing people to form their own opinions of the church rather than being told by the church what to believe.
One of the major events that assisted the fall of the Holy Roman Empire was Thirty Years’ War. The event that started the Thirty Years’ War was “defenestration of Prague.” Two of Ferdinand’s officials were thrown out a window. The Lutherans violated the Peace of Augsburg by acquiring German Bishops, Calvinists converting princes, and Jesuits reconverting princes to Catholicism. The Calvinists and Catholics had many advantages because of that which made the Lutherans fear the Peace of Augsburg would be negatively impaired. The Lutheran Princes felt it necessary to create the Protestant Union and in retaliation the Catholics formed to Catholic League.
These ideas and questionings staged the fight for equality from the third estate, with the help of the social elites (Jean-Jacques Rousseau) that contributed to the break down of the social order. One of the most effective events that occurred to lead up of the revolution was the formation of the Estates General. Under Louis XV, France became bankrupt due to heavy borrowing and could not cover the costs to run the country, so the King called a meeting of representatives of the three social classes of France. The calling of the Estates General required the electing of two deputies and the drawing up dossiers of grievances to be presented at the meeting at Versailles. These “grievances” however, were not demands,
The rejection of the “People’s Budget” in 1909 stimulated the greatest constitutional crisis for a generation, and provided grounding for the need to introduce reform to ensure a supposedly more democratic, legitimate and effective political system, where popular will triumphed. The Parliament Act 1911 set into motion the establishment of Commons’ dominance of Parliament, and the debate over legitimacy of the upper house up until the present day.  In 1958, the Life Peerages Act provided for the regular creation of life peers (as opposed to hereditary peers), as a more acceptable form of new membership, yet the remaining lack of a mandate continued to make the Lords’ role questionable . This essay will contrast the merits and demerits of an unelected House of Lords to that of an elected one, and whether such characteristics could be used as
Seth Evans Mr. Clint Gazette World History Honors 2nd -Seth Evans 2/15/10 1:13 PM needs to be on previous line January 25, 2010 Philosophies and the French Revolution How could philosophies of the Enlightenment have affected the French Revolution? Multiple philosophies of the Enlightenment could have influenced the French's decision to revolt. For instance, John Locke's idea stating, all humans are endowed unalienable rights (as stated later in the United States Constitution) and the French may have used this idea for a reason to revolt.Needs developed -Seth Evans 2/15/10 1:14 PM As an optimist, John Locke believed in natural rights, or rights belonging to humans from birth. Throughout history, women have been treated as interior
All in all, these two major movements produced a new understanding of society's relationships--first with God, and then with government. Shaping new attitudes was a first step towards what will eventually become the struggle for Independence and the American Revolution. However, most of the ideas would perhaps have remained theoretical if not for the wars that swept North America and increased tensions with the crown. In the early 1750s, French expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought France into armed conflict with the British colonies and the Seven Year War broke out. The French lost the war and in 1763 the Treaty of
In the Revolution Controversy I learned some important things: One was that the Revolution was initiated by Richard Price’s sermon, A Discourse on the Love of Our Country; Price had significant influence on England’s policies and an idea that loves for one’s country should imply love for fellow cities and about the importance of liberty and education within a nation. Then a year later Edmund Burke published a reply to Price, his Reflections on the Revolution in France; where he talked about the rights of man, her view of nature and our liberties and about the illusion and power. Then Reflections had too many responses from Mary Wollstonecraft in her Vindication of the Rights of Men. Wollstonecraft was a British feminist in support of French Revolution.
While this biographical information may seem irrelevant, it is important in this case precisely because the radical ideas of her parents may give us an idea of the author’s own opinions on the historical events surrounding the setting for her novel. As Warren Montag argues, the novel itself is set in the 1790’s, approximately one hundred and fifty years after the 1642 Revolution in England, which is mentioned in the text (385). Thus, the work itself alludes to revolution and is placed during a revolutionary time. In fact, there were two revolutions going on at this time: the French Revolution, and the Haitian Revolution. The main historical event during the 1790’s was the French Revolution.
They raised calls to reform institutions, improve clerical education, and change basic doctrines. During the sixteenth century, the great humanist Erasmus published The Praise of Folly in order to “criticize abuses in the church and in society and to promote greater inwardness and purer spirituality in religion” (I, 1) in a satirical way by ridiculing the nobles and the pedants. In the early 16th century, Pope Leo X authorized the sale of indulgences in order to finance the building of Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Erasmus didn’t agree with the sale of indulgences. In The Praise of Folly, he expressed his opinion of the sale of indulgences when he says “by this easy way of purchasing pardons, any notorious highwayman, any plundering soldier, or any bribe-taking judge shall disburse some part of their unjust gains, and so think all their grossest impieties sufficiently atoned for” (I, 1).