Living creatures produce thousands of enzymes, and the reason for this is because; ‘most enzymes only catalyze one biochemical reaction’ (1), and many different enzymes are need to do this. Enzyme-substrate specificity, this is when ‘a typical enzyme only works on the substrates used in one reaction’ (1). This involves the substrate(s) that bind to the active site. Both active site’s and the substrate’s shape are a match. The reason for this is because; this allows the substrate to bind to the active site, which is known as the ‘lock and key model’.
This is how a cell grows and reproduces. At the most basic level, a cell is really a little bag full of chemical reactions that are made possible by enzymes. (Marshal Brain, nb) In one sense, enzymes operate in the same way as a key operates a lock; each key has a very specific shape which ,on the whole, fits and operates only one lock. In the same way a substrate will only fit the active site of one particular enzyme. Enzymes are therefore specific in the reaction that they catalyse.
(See diagram right.) Biological catalysts, (those produced within the body,) are called enzymes. The vast majority of these are proteins, (polymers of amino acids,) and all are organic, containing carbon bonded to hydrogen. Enzymes have many significant functions and are so important that our bodies reside at 37 degrees just to facilitate them. Within the body, biological catalysts are vital to many processes and without them bodily reactions would be too slow to sustain life.
Following this, the enzyme substrate complex breaks down producing the enzyme and the products. Each enzyme functions only for a specific substrate. The enzymes shape must be complementary to the shape of the substrate or the reaction will not take place. Since enzymes are perfectly created to perform certain functions. It is important that the catalytic elements in an active site are precisely positioned for their
Enzymes, as a subclass of catalysts, are very specific in nature. Each enzyme can act to catalyze only very select chemical reactions and only with very select substances. An enzyme has been described as a "key" which can "unlock" complex compounds. An enzyme, as the key, must have a certain structure or multi-dimensional shape that matches a specific section of the "substrate" (a substrate is the compound or substance which undergoes the change). Once these two components come together, certain chemical bonds within the substrate molecule change much as a lock is released, and just like the key in this illustration, the enzyme is free to execute its duty once again.
On the surface of the enzyme is an active site that temporarily binds the reactants or substrates forming an enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic action of the enzyme then converts the substrate to a product or products. This conversion can take the form of a synthesis (building more complex molecules), a decomposition (splitting of the substrate), an oxidation/reduction (addition or removal of electrons), or an isomerization (rearrangement of atoms within a molecule). When the product or products are released, the enzyme emerges unchanged and available to convert more substrate into more products. Since enzymes can be used again and again, they are effective even at low concentrations.
Enzymes Activity i. Introduction: An enzyme is a compound that aids the chemical reaction within a cell by speeding up the rate at which it occurs. Most chemical reactions would occur too slowly for the cell to work properly without the enzyme. A metabolic reaction is any chemical change that occurs within a cell. Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them.
All enzymes are catalysts 2. All enzyme molecules have at least one active site 3. All enzymes are proteins * When a substrate reacts with something it forms a new product. Sometimes that very reaction needs some “help” to happen. It requires a lot of energy to form certain products whose intermediate product is very unstable and hard to achieve.
Enzyme has an active site in a specific shape because of its tertiary structure. Enzyme works for binding with substance of a specific shape that fits in it and break down the substance. Enzymes denature due to various factors. The temperature, PH level, and the concentration of the substance influence enzyme activities. When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore.
Aasir Osman Enzyme Investigation - Effects of pH on the Activity of Catalase Aim: The aim of this investigation is to determine the effect of the inhibitor which is pH, on the enzyme catalase, which can be obtained from potatoes. *************8 Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that catalyse the speed of biochemical reactions in the body. They are responsible for all metabolic functions and are absolutely vital for life itself. Without enzymes, reactions would take place too slowly to keep you alive. These proteins are highly specific regarding what they do and under what conditions they do it in.