Ap Biology Evolution Essay

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ANSWERS AP ESSAYS EVOLUTION 1. Evolution is one of the major unifying concepts of modern biology. A) Explain the mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change. B) Describe how scientists use each of the following as evidence for evolution. 1. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics 2. Comparative biochemistry 3. The fossil record ANSWER: A) max 7 pts The Big Picture: 1 pt- punctuated equilibrium, mass extinction, etc 1 pt- definition of evolution- change through time 1 pt- mutation- change in gene yields genetic variation 1 pt- natural selection/selective pressure (Darwin) 1 pt- genetic variation exists 1 pt- over production 1 pt- competition – survival of fittest (best genes) 1 pt- survivors reproduce (best…show more content…
Electron flow, proton pump, chemiosmosis, Krebs, citric acid cycle 1 pt- ATP, etc 1 pt- photosynthesis- light Rxn, Calvin 1 pt- protein sythesis 1 pt- proteins- ex. amino acid sequences, isoenzymes, cyctochrome C, hemoglobin (addn’l pt for elaboration), insulin 1 pt- cell structure based on similarity in molecular composition Molecular structure commonality: 1 pt- DNA base sequence/homology/hybridization ( 1 addn’l pt for explanation) 1 pt- RNA base sequence/homology/hybridization ( 1 addn’l pt for explanation) 3. fossil record 1 pt- stratification of fossils as evidence of change 1 pt + 1 pt- examples with description of change: humans, horses, vascular plants, shellfish 1 pt- limb homology + elaboration of example 1 pt- chronology- radioactive dating 1 pt- cladistics/phenology 1 pt- extinction of species 2. Genetic variation is the raw material for evolution. A) Explain THREE cellular and/or molecular mechanisms that introduce variation into the gene pool of a plant or animal population. B) Explain the evolutionary mechanisms that can change the composition of the gene
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