Cocci bacteria exchange the genetic material to the DNA of the host cells therefore causing ailments (Heritage, 2006). In this case, the pathogen first attaches itself through infection to the host living thing, then penetrates to the cells and again attaches to the host cells. Some species of the cocci bacteria have the capability to generate very resistive structure called endospores (Heritage, 2006). This resistive
Bacteria usually reproduce via binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction where the bacteria replicates its DNA then divides itself into two identical cells. Unlike viruses, bacteria do not need a host cell (although they still need nutrients) to reproduce. Harmful bacteria are referred to as pathogens. These pathogens cause disease that usually start in a specific location but when left untreated, can cause septiceamia (the blood becomes infected and unusable by the body) which leads to shock and ultimately death. Most bacterial infections produce pus, a substance containing dead white blood cells.
Disease Yersinia pestis The Plague Jesus Urquijo Biology 113 Lab March 18, 2013 Microbes are what make the world what it is today. They are found in nearly every environment on earth. Each species has its own way of getting nutrients and adapting to its environment, such as pH, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and enzymes that are essential for optimum living. The majority of bacteria living on earth are harmless if not beneficial to the human race, but those few microbes that are harmful to humans are those that cause disease. They are referred to as pathogens and need to be observed so we can prevent the spreading of disease caused by those particular microbes.
This is quite an efficient method of production and the amount of the PHB polymer yielded is around 30-80% of the dry weight of the micro-organisms used. Even though this method is efficient it is still not quite economically viable as there is the high cost of using the agar solution, petri dishes and the removal of the nitrogen. More recently as this biopolymers potential to society has become more prominent, scientists are trying to develop more efficient and sustainable means to produce it. In 1992 the idea of using genetically modified plants to produce PHB was developed at Michigan State University. By using the genes from two bacteria producing organisms such as Alcaligenes Eutrophus, they could insert them into cress plants with the aim of these plants producing the PHB.
Unit 265 Causes and spread of infection. Outcome 1 Understand the causes of infection Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria are a living organism that is found almost everywhere, in soil, water and even in the human body. Not all bacteria are harmful, and some bacteria that live in your body are helpful. For instance, Lactobacillus acidophilus — a harmless bacterium that resides in your intestines — helps you digest food, destroys some disease-causing organisms and provides nutrients.
Fay Chambers Unit 4223-008 Causes and spread of infection Bacteria are single celled organisms; they are among the most successful life forms on Earth and can survive in all habitats. Some bacteria are good for us. ‘Friendly’ bacteria for example help us to digest food, whilst other forms of bacteria can cause serious illness. The kinds of bacteria that cause infection are called pathogenic bacteria. Many bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics although some strains are now becoming resistant.
The pros are the reduced risk of creating resistant microorganisms and less chance of harming the host. C) Antimicrobial resistance can be observed when: - The bacteria is able to change the cell envelope and prevents the agent from entering the cell - The bacteria increase the release of toxins and decrease the effect of the agent - The bacteria multiply rapidly and start forming biofilms which inactivate the agent. D) - I measured an affected area with a diameter of 22mm around the Novobiocin after 72 hours. This indicates according to table 1 that the S.epidermidis is susceptible to Novobiocin. - Gentamicin measured an area with a diameter of 19mm around it= S.epidermidis is susceptible to
CU254 : Causes and Spread of Infection 1. Understand The Causes Of Infection 1.1 Understand the differences between: Bacteria - Bacteria are a single cell group usually in many millions that can multiply rapidly. Viruses - A virus is infectious and replicates itself within living cells. Fungi - Fungi is a multi celled micro organism found in moulds and yeasts, it is a vital component in de-composition. Parasites - A parasite is an organism that lives on or within another living organism, it feeds off of the host.
They can survive with without a host. Vaccinations have a weakened virus in them to stimulate the bodys defenses. Parasites have a nucleus and share many the same features of a human cell. Fungus also have a nucleus. They are commonly found as spores and molds in the environment and as yeast in humans.
Explain how physical factors influence the distribution of biodiversity shown (10 marks) There are several factors influencing biodiversity including; isolation, age, altitudinal range, productivity The most bio diverse areas are between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn. The Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia have over 3000 plant species per 10000 km2 because they’re isolated as a series of islands which means there are more endemic species on the island as species develop in a more distinct way. The location within the tropics combined with the old age of the countries mean higher biodiversity as the species have more time to develop and evolve. Being within the tropics means there are fewer physical constraints such as light and water which are all in abundance due to rainforest conditions. The Himalayas have over 4000 plant species per 10000 km2 due to the large altitudinal range which means more climatic zones are involved creating more diverse habitats such as rock faces, steep hills.