In order to utilize casein, bacteria cells secrete proteolytic exoenzymes (amylases, proteases, pectinases, lipases, xylanases and cellulases) outside of the cell that hydrolyze the protein to amino acids. The amino acids can then be used by cells after crossing the cell membrane via transport proteins . Starch hydrolysis test is used to differentiate bacteria based on their ability to hydrolyze starch with the enzyme α-amylase or oligo-l, 6-glucosidase. These enzymes hydrolyze starch by breaking the glycosidic linkages between the sugar subunits. It aids in the differentiation of species from the genera Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium and members of Enterococcus .
Introduction: The nature of animals is to adapt according to their environmental challenges. This is known to be achieved by differing the expression of genes which code for certain proteins. In our project we assayed the trypsin protein expression in the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). Trypsin, an enzyme that cuts peptide bonds in proteins and is found in the digestive system of many vertebrates where it hydrolyses proteins, has an alkaline pH optimum of 10.5 (Peterson et al. 1994).
This protein is part of bacterial antiviral defense mechanism and it can destroy double-stranded DNA. Therefore, to prevent lower yield of transfection, we used as host GMO endA negative E coli strain. Plasmid Purification There are several ways to purify plasmids. Plasmid DNA isolation techniques can be simple - low quality DNA preparations “minipreps” and more complex, time-consuming high quality DNA preparations. The high quality DNA preparation requires organic or hazardous cesium chloride ingredients, and the entire process can take a few days.
Purpose: This lab is to test the difference in reaction of the bacteria’s cell wall to different chemicals. The test is to differ two different categories of bacteria, Gram positive, which are stained by crystal violet dye, and Gram negative, which are stained by red dye – safranin. Analysis: 1) In what way(s) is the cell wall different between Gram positive and Gram negative? - Gram positive bacteria has a significant high amount of peptidoglycan in its cell wall which let it retains the crystal violet stain. Another significant different between Gram positive and Gram negative organisms is that Gram positive organisms lack outer membrane found in Gram negative.
Analysis of Escherichia Coli Growth to Gauge Efficacy of Antibacterial Mouthwash and Aseptic Technique Introduction Bacteria are the oldest life form on earth. They are ubiquitous, highly adaptable and some even thrive in harsh environments. They inhabit other organisms, some in a supportive capacity and others in a pathogenic capacity. Most Escherichia coli strains are harmless and even beneficial, aiding in digestion, creating vitamin K₂, and inhibiting the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine. E. coli has even been used to synthesize human insulin.
In our tests we used the bacteria S. aureus and tried to determine which antibiotic, Chloramphenicol or Vancomycin would be more effective in killing the bacteria. We hypothesized that both antibiotics will be effective at controlling S. aureus; however after doing the experiment we determined which one is more effective than the other. Staphylococcus aureus, according to Todar (2005) is a Gram-positive spherical bacterium that occurs in microscopic
He named the resulting substance Penicillin, and 5 years later it became the first usable antibiotic. Penicillin is produced by a group of fungi of the Penicillium genus. Streptomycin was the next widely used antibiotic, developed from a soil dwelling bacterium. This antibiotic is very useful for treating streptococcus infections and is even effective against tuberculosis. Several more antibiotic were developed in the years following and many emerged in the 1950s and 1960s.
The symptoms of botulism can include nausea, diarrhoea followed by constipation and later on neurological symptoms may occur such as dysphagia, facial weakness and paralysis. In extreme yet not uncommon cases Botulism can be fatal. This is why the greatest of care must be taken in food production to ensure that Clostridium botulinum is not present in any of the food stuffs produced. Clostridium botulinum is found in a variety of locations but most commonly in soil as well as oceans, lakes and much marine sediment. It is not limited to any particular region of the globe, being found worldwide.
Causes and Spread of Infection 1. Understand the causes of Infection 1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites The differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites range. One of which is the fact that viruses and parasites depend upon a living host to survive, while bacteria and Fungi's don't always need to do so. Another difference is that Parasites are normally living creatures - ticks, fleas, worms - whilst bacteria, viruses and fungi are cells that have different cell coatings. 1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites The most common illnesses and infections that occur due to bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are Dioreah, Vomiting, Influenza, Nail infections, Tick bites, Colds, Skin Conditions, Digestive Problems ( Parasites - Worms ) and in some cases, Death.
2) _____ A) natural killer cells B) monocytes C) leukocytes D) macrophages ** E) interferons 3) Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages? 3) _____ A) complement B) interferon ** C) prostaglandin D) antigen E) pyrogen 4) Which of the following is a major function of natural killer cells? A) to attack and kill pathogenic microorganisms in a nonspecific way 4) _____ B) to attack virus-infected cells in a nonspecific way ** C) to attack virus-infected cells in an antigen-specific way D) to tag pathogenic microorganisms with antibodies E) to phagocytize microorganisms that have been tagged with antibodies 5) Complement proteins assist the immune response by ______. A) enhancing the effects of antibiotics 5) _____ B) coating the surface of microbes, thus making it easier for macrophages to phagocytize them** C) reducing inflammation D) all of the above E) none of the above 6) A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that ______. A) the rat has, or recently had, a viral infection ** B) cancerous cells are present in the rat C) the rat's diet is deficient in calcium D) the