Antibodies Answers

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Question 1 (a) Describe the role of antibodies as part of the human immune response. Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins, are proteins manufactured by the body that help fight against foreign substances called antigens. When an antigen enters the body, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. (The immune system is the body's natural defence system.) The antibodies attach, or bind themselves to the antigen and inactivate it. Every healthy adult's body has small amounts of thousands of different antibodies. Each one is highly specialized to recognize just one kind of foreign substance. Antibody molecules are typically Y-shaped, with a binding site on each arm of the Y. The binding sites of each antibody, in turn, have a specific shape. Only antigens that match this shape will fit into them. The role of antibodies is to bind with antigens and inactivate them so that other bodily processes can take over, destroy, and remove the foreign substances from the body. Antigens are any substance that…show more content…
• Helper T cells precipitate the production of antibodies by B cells and also produce substances that activate other T cells. • Regulatory/Suppressor T cells suppress the response of B cells and other T cells to antigens. (d) Explain how T-cells interact with B-cells as part of the immune response in the human body include in your answer a discussion of the mechanism that allow these interactions Although antibodies can recognize an antigen and lock onto it, they are not capable of destroying it without help. That's the job of the T cells, which are part of the system that destroys antigens that have been tagged by antibodies or cells that have been infected or somehow changed. (Some T cells are actually called "killer cells.") T cells also are involved in helping signal other cells (like phagocytes) to do their
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