Anthrax Essay

1471 WordsApr 9, 20136 Pages
Anthrax Synonyms: Splenic fever, Charbon, Milzbrand, Woolsorter’s disease.  Anthrax is an peracute, contagious, and usually rapidly fatal septicemia affecting wide range of mammals including humans.  Most commonly affected are cattle & sheep, less commonly, horse & goats. Although all ages are susceptible, older ages are more commonly affected. Bulls are more at risk than cows.  Anthrax is characterized by sudden death and exudation of tarry blood from natural body orifices of cadaver.  The most important necropsy findings are  failure of the blood to clot,  absence of rigor mortis, and  the presence of splenomegaly Etiology  The causative bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, is a Gram-positive, non-motile, capsulated, spore-forming, aerobic bacilli.  When bacilli discharged from an infected animal or exposed to free oxygen from an opened carcass, they form spores that are resistant to extreme temperature, chemical disinfectants, and desiccation.  Anthrax bacilli can remain viable in the soil for more than 30 years. In an unopened carcass, the vegetative organisms are rapidly destroyed (1 to 2 hr) at ambient temperature often during the summer. For this reason, the carcass of an animal dead from anthrax should not be necropsied. Epidemiology  It is distributed worldwide with incidence varies with soil and climate. The disease is enzootic and restricted in particular areas, the so called “anthrax belt”.  Animals can get spores directly from;  The soil or  Pasture grown on infected soil,  from contaminated bone or meat meal  from excretion, blood or other materials from infected animal  Contaminated water  Contaminated animal products such as hides, fertilizers, hair & wool.  Infection gain entrance to the body by ingestion, inhalation or through the skin.  It is considered that most animals are

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