Annoated Bib Essay

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Introduction In this article Choate et al focus on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and how it works to improve the child’s behavior by changing the parent-child interaction. PCIT has been effective in treating disruptive behavior in disruptive behavior in young children. This study describes how PCIT can effectively be used in treating Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) as well. Theories suggest that separation anxiety develops from an interaction of factors that include genetic vulnerabilities to experience anxiety, temperamental and biological vulnerabilities, stressful transition events, insecure attachment relationships, and negative family experiences. Children who experience SAD are significantly distressed by separation from an attachment figure, usually a parent, and seek to avoid separation at any costs. SAD is relatively common, leading to serious repercussions throughout a child’s life, as well as, affects on family life and parental stress from the child’s anxiety, limiting the activities with siblings and parents. Current treatments for SAD focus on cognitive-behavioral methods to treat, generally focusing on elements of exposure, establishing lists of feared situations, and the child practices facing situations to counteract the avoidance that co-occurs with separation fears. There is also relaxation training, modeling, coping statements, and contingent reinforcement strategies have been used in SAD treatment. Research also supports the influence of parental factors playing an important role in the treatment of SAD. Young children with SAD may display oppositional behavior in addition to the avoidance behaviors that can cause significant interference in child and family functioning and in normal social development. PCIT treatment approach has two important mechanisms: child-directed and parent-directed interactions, assuming that

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