George Orwell’s allegory Animal Farm satirises the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the novel he uses effective examples of satire and irony to convey his ideas and thoughts about the Russian Revolution and totalitarianism. Since the aim of satire is to criticize the object of attack, teaching a moral indirectly with a humorous tone, in the animal satire, the author uses animals instead of humans and places them in human situations. Hence, Orwell is able to attack the political idea he is contemptuous of and entertain the reader at the same time.
The main target of this allegory is Stalin, represented by Napoleon the pig. He represents the human frailties of any revolution. Orwell believed that although socialism is a good ideal, it could never be successfully adopted due to uncontrollable sins of human nature. For example, although Napoleon seems at first to be a good leader, he is eventually overcome by greed and soon becomes power-hungry. Of course Stalin did too in Russia, leaving the original equality of socialism behind, giving him all the power and living in luxury while the common pheasant suffered. Orwell explains: “Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer - except of course for the pigs and the dogs.”
The perennial topic of satire is to point out the frailties of the human condition, and this is one of Orwell’s central themes in Animal Farm. That it’s not necessarily the system that is corrupt or faulty, but the individuals in power. Old Major made Animalism (or Communism, as we would call it) sound perfect. And it was for the beginning, until Napoleon became power hungry and decided to turn the farm into a dictatorship. This shows that its not necessarily the system that is corrupt or faulty, but the individuals in power.