Running head: APPROACH TO CARING
Approach to Caring
Grand Canyon University
Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Client's Health
October 25, 2011
Approach to Caring
According to McCance & Huether (date), cancer is a leading cause of death of adults in the Western world. The incidence of cancer cases increase with age and can be strongly affected by gender, ethnicity, genetics, lifestyles or infection. After more than 35 years of research, it has been found that cancer is a culmination of many different diseases, caused by an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. The definition of cancer was perhaps best described in 1922, as “The most generally accepted definition of a tumor is that it is a tissue overgrowth which is independent of the laws governing the remainder of the body. It is usual to add as a qualifying phrase to separate tumors from reparative processes, such as bone callus, that the neoplasm overgrowth serves no useful purpose to the organism” (Mc Cance & Huether, pg 360). There are all different types of cancers bringing with each different types of complications, but for the purposes of this paper the focus is on prostate cancer.
The prostate is a gland that is located in front of the rectum and underneath the urinary bladder. The male urethra, located through the middle of the prostate, is the tube which carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis. When a man is young his prostate is about the size of a walnut, but the size of the prostate may increase with age, causing complications other than cancer. The growth of the prostate is fueled by male hormones, mostly testosterone, which is converted into dihydrotestosterone or DHT. As men age the production of testosterone is decreased and thus, the prostate may become enlarged. Prostate cancer is the most common