Assignment #2: Feminist political theory in America Poli 344: American Political Thought Bruce Baum March 28, 2013 By: Nadine Burgess Feminist political theorists like Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Betty Friedan experienced and analyzed very different eras in political feminism than the one that exists today. Despite contextualizing and directly addressing the cultural, social, and political issues women faced in their day, aspects of their ideas continue to be relevant in the 21st century. Gilman’s analyzed the economic dependence of women on their male counterparts and proposed solid reforms to spur a change in culture about how tasks in the home are completed. She touches on the balancing act women face when it comes to motherhood and other aspects of human life, a struggle women still face today. Friedan brings emotion and anger to the plight of women in her era of feminism, highlighting a political issue that remained out of the spotlight for far too long.
Modernization throughout the time period is a factor of the advancement of civil rights for women since separate spheres, which was an ideology where men belonged in the public sphere that refers to the world of politics, economy and law. Where as women belonged in the private sphere where it included domestic work, child caring, housekeeping and religious education. Some Women did go against the ideology by working in a men dominated environment e.g. Politics. Activism by women was not the most important factor in advancing civil rights in certain issues and it would disagree with the judgment.
This made feminist activist begin to pose questions about the position of women in the media and culture. According to Lee and Shaw, “They began connecting mass media to education, economy, and politics, seeing it as a broader framework of culture in which women perform gender, negotiate stereotypes, and experience discriminatory practices” (63). Becoming aware of these representations of women in the media and the impact of those images in society, were an important factor in the struggle to produce change. Women also understood the value of modern
To understand the rise of the women’s movement in the 1960’s and 1970’s, one must look at the cultural ideology of the time, as well as, other influences that might have sparked unrest within the female community. In the essays, “Cold War Ideology and the Rise of Feminism” by Elaine Tyler May and “Women’s Liberation and Sixties Radicalism” by Alice Echols, both historians discuss the women’s movement/protest and how it came to be. While the women’s liberation movement meant equality and the end to sex discrimination to many women, Echols and May offer different explanations on the rise of the women’s movement, and differences on the limitations that women discovered in trying to attain their goals through the movement. These differences in perspective may be observed through the historians’ writing, placing emphasis on how long they talk about each cause of the rise of feminism. To understand the feminist movement and their goals, one must first look at the history and popular culture before the sixties and seventies.
Believing sexism will go away without putting major changes in place, is not a reality. Sexism blatantly exists in the work place. Obvious (and most common) examples of this would be: women are often paid less than their male counterparts for the same position, men often receive rapid job promotions in comparison to women and women are usually the targets of gender based harassment. Women frequently struggle with the lack of pay they receive, in comparison to their male counterparts. A woman working in the same job as a man will usually earn less, despite the fact that she may have the same or better training, education, and skills required for the job ("Study Shows Female Managers in Britain Earn Less than Men, and Equality Could Be 57 Years Away."
Women and Equality As the second wave of the women’s civil rights movement took place in the 1960s and 1970s, it began to focus on gaining equality with men in other areas, like work, the law and social standing in general. This second wave targeted many aspects of life and presented a much larger challenge to traditional ideas of women's rights. At the forefront of this movement was the National Organization for Women (NOW). Founded in 1966, the purpose of NOW was, "To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men" (Friedan, 1966). October 29, 1972 in New York, a man by the name of Richard Carroll who worked for Con Edison visited the National Organization for Women.
the challenges | | |FEMINISM | |THE CHALLENGES OF FEMINISM IN A TRADITIONALLY PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY – THE CASE OF GUYANA | | | |DENZIL CARMICHAEL 12/0839/0550 | |11/21/2012 | |THIS RESEARCH ON FEMINISM TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION THE SOCIOLOGICAL | THE CHALLENGES OF FEMINISM IN A TRADITIONALLY PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY –THE CASE OF GUYANA Feminism as a sociological concept began to gain prominence among European and Anglo-American women during the end of the nineteenth century. The initial aim of the movement had been female suffrage, reforms to the laws governing marriage and greater access to education by women. The initial proponents were called suffragettes. Contemporary feminists who pursue similar goals are called liberal feminists because; their theories and approaches are principally concerned with widely accepted ideas in contemporary western society. Barbara Smith, contributor to the seminal work by coloured feminists “This Bridge called my Back”, writes that Native American and other non-White women “were involved in autonomous organization at the same time that
What are the distinctive characteristics of feminist social science? This essay will explore whether there are distinctive characteristics in feminist social science and will begin by defining what we mean by feminist social theory. The challenge of different feminist theorists to the validity of scientific methods will be examined, in particular their search for ‘objectivity’. Differing approaches adopted within each wave of the feminist social movement will be explored and different feminist standpoints, their criticisms and their methods will be considered. Each approach derives from the fact that feminist social theorists were considered to be mainly concerned with gender equality and preoccupied with ensuring that women’s interests were not marginalised .Feminist theorists have continued to concentrate on the position of women in society and their research is generally based on the notion that women are regarded as under the control and authority of men.
The burden of childbirth in ancient societies made women dependant on men's labor, and thus enabled the initial inequality. In this situation women were banished from activities such as hunting and fighting that were seen as man's purpose in his strive to elevate himself from nature. With the shift to agrarian societies and the introduction of the need to plan ahead, women gained importance by providing the continuation of the family/community/species, and her powers were recognized and feared. The response was the objectification of women and their treatment as property at the disposal of men. They were reduced to a mere function, and not an integral part of human existence.
They have suffered inequality in the areas of justice, educational opportunities, economical position, social freedom, political rights, and violence as well. Recently, increased international relations advocate for women’s rights and empower women in the MENA regions. International organizations have successfully empowered women in these regions. However, as the societies of the MENA face the challenging processes of social change, inequality towards women remain as the biggest obstacle. Therefore, as a contemporary issue in international relations, women’s rights in MENA can effectively be addressed from a liberal perspective.