Running head: Journal Article - Andragogy
Journal Article – Andragogy and Where It Leads
Theory and Methods of Educating Adults
Andragogy is the art and science of helping adult learners. It is this premise that will be explored throughout this paper. Andragogy is a learning theory that addresses the special aspects of adult learning. Although, it can be traced back to a German grammar teacher Alexander Kapp in 1833, it was not until it was introduced by Malcolm Knowles’ in 1968 that it became popular theory. Knowles’ concept for andragogy incorporated four assumptions: maturity, allowing a person to move from dependent to self directing learning, adults accumulating experiences that they use as resources for learning, adults learning relying on their social culture and adults learning that is problem centered opposed to subject centered. From these assumptions, Knowles felt that successful adult learning programs could be established. His premise was that adult learners are “self-directed” and have the desire to take part in their own learning experiences, (Merriam, Carrafella & Baumgartner, 2007). In other words, andragogy focus the learning experience on the adults learning process instead of the content. Since inception, andragogy has taken on a broader meaning than adult learners, but now the term defines alternative to pedagogy and is linked to learner-focused education for all ages, children to adults. Although this is a well known learning theory for adults, there are numerous models or frameworks that help define adult learning. Comparatively, all of these theories and processes can be used to explain the learning process for adults. Specifically, throughout this paper, theories and methods will be applied to educating adult learners in the military for further clarification to the reader. Whether it is Knowles andragogy or...