Andragogy Essay

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ASSIGNMENT 501 ASSIGNMENT 501 The principles of Andragogy (How adults learn) The principles of Andragogy (How adults learn) Assignment 501: Andragogy According to Malcom Knowles, an American educator well known for the use of the term Andragogy in association to the adult education. Andragogy is the art & science of adult learning, therefore Andragogy refers to any form of adult learning whereas Pedagogy refers to child learning. Knowles (1970) suggested that there were obvious differences in characteristics between adults and child learners, Knowles stated that adult learners are internally motivated, they have their own needs and are more goal orientated, they also have a vast amount of experience in life and also work which can be valuable in learning, adults are more practical and have the ambition to complete tasks rather than just learning a subject, and adults like to have their contributions valued. Knowles (1978:56) writes that “It is my own observation that those students who have entered a professional school or a job have made a big step toward seeing themselves as essentially self-directing. They have largely resolved their identity-formation issues; they are identified with an adult role”. He also claims that “Any experience that they perceive as putting them in the position of being treated as children is bound to interface with their learning.” According to Knowles there are 4 key principles in which underpin adult learning: These can be represented graphically as: Taken from: (14.7.2014) Knowles’s thinking on adult learning has not been without critics. Carlson (1989) summarizes some of the concerns that some have had about Knowles, Zealous promotion of Andragogy. Welton (1995) grouped together four other colleagues who share in various ways a more radical philosophy of adult
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