Ancient Western Asia and the Civilization of Mesopatamia Essay

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Ancient Western Asia and the Civilization of Mesopotamia Driving Question What are the causes and effects for the development of complex institutions throughout the ancient world? Main Idea Neolithic Revolution changes human’s interaction with the environment through the use of simple tools to create settled agriculture communities instead of hunting and gathering nomadic clans. Thus humans began to manipulate their environment. Permanent Settlements- The people of Mesopotamia migrated to the Fertile Crescent due to lack of water and climate change. They developed permanent settlements in the rich soil--> Neolithic Revolution. The effect of the Neolithic Revolution is increased population and regional trade. Stable food supply for permanent communities- surplus agriculture through advanced technology led to a diversified workforce. Complex institutions developed leading to a hierarchal socioeconomic structure based on class and wealth. Religion supplanted kinship groups as the political and social structure Epic of Gilgamesh (Poem)-Developmental Complex- the development of complex institutions is influenced by their environment. Complex social institutions such as religion are influenced by the need for safety against flooding disasters. The religious values influenced political structure, which is harsh due to community security issues. Organized the labor forces to build dykes, irrigation canals, and temples to increase community efficiency, safety, and morality. Urbanization- Urbanization led to a need for written records and political organization. Cuneiform was used to records economic and political policy. Religious temples of the pantheon (polytheistic) also acted as cultural and political centers. Ancient Laws- Hammurabi’s codes was a strict hierarchal set of laws based on socio economic status (i.e. wealth) from land.

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