Anatomy & Physiology of Muscular System

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Running Head: OVERVIEW OF MUSCULAR SYSTEM The Anatomy and Physiology of the Muscular System The human body is composed of major organ systems that work together to perform complex body functions (Thibodeau & Patton, 2008). One of these major organ systems is the muscular system. The muscular system produces an endless variety of actions with the help of muscles. Muscles have three primary functions: movement, maintaining body posture and production of body heat (Thibodeau & Patton, 2008). They also aid in internal processes such as the heartbeat and movement of food through the intestines (Parker, 2007). There are three different types of muscle tissue: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. One of the three types of muscle tissue is cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscles are involuntary and found only in the heart. They are controlled by the medulla oblongata, which controls involuntary action all throughout the body (Oracle Think Quest, 1996). Just think what it would be like to be in charge of consciously reminding your heart to beat. This is why the heart is an involuntary muscle. Cardiac muscle tissue consists of cylindrical fibers that have cross striations (Thibodeau & Patton, 2008). They have a single nucleus, which helps determine the type of muscle class it is. These fibers are short and branching and are often Y- or V- shaped (Parker, 2007). Their main function is to propel blood into circulation. Contraction of cardiac muscle tissue happens by an impulse sent from the medulla oblongata to the sinatorial node, also known as the heart’s natural pacemaker (Thibodeau & Patton, 2008). Smooth muscle is another one of the muscle types that make up the muscular system. These muscle tissues, like cardiac muscle tissue, are involuntary. Smooth muscle tissue has a single nucleus and lack the cross

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