Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Skeleton

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Timothy Stephenson Course : Access to Higher Education Diploma Subject : Biology Unit Title : Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Skeleton and Muscles TAQ 1 The features of Skeletal and Bone which enable them to carry out their roles The adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones, these bones are made up of several living tissue which contain blood vessels and nerves. There are two types of bone, Cortical which is very compact and makes up the shaft of bones and the Cancellous which is located at the ends of the long bones. The diaphysis is the main shaft in a typical long bone, such as the Humerus, it is formed of Cortical bone and contains Nutrient arteries and the hollow inside is filled with fatty yellow bone marrow. The epiphyses which are the distal and proximal ends of the bone is formed of Cancellous bone and contain spongey bone and red bone marrow which is used for the production of new red blood cells. The epiphyses of each end are covered in is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage which is known as the articular cartilage, this reduces friction between joints when movement is carried out. The human skeleton performs various functions. It is there to provide a frame work for the body by supporting tissues and providing attachment point for tendons and muscles. The skeleton also provides protection for many internal organs such as the brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, when the muscles contract and pull on bones you get movement of part of the body. Bone tissue is also important in storage of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. These are distributed around the body when required to maintain the correct balance of minerals within the body as a whole. Within certain bones red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which is a process called
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