Anatomy And Physiology: Cardiovascular System

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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 19: Vascular * Contrast the structure and function of the various types of blood vessels * Explain how the venous blood is returned to the heart * Explain blood pressure and pulse * Discuss the factors that affect blood pressure * Contrast the clinical significance of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure * Discuss the mechanism of capillary exchange * Describe blood flow through systemic and pulmonary circuits. Identify the principal arteries and veins of the systemic, pulmonary, and hepatic portal circulations * Describe unique aspects of fetal circulation * Explain the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system * Describe significant cardiovascular diseases…show more content…
It starts with oxygen poor blood being pumped from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk. The pulmonary trunk divides into right and left pulmonary arteries that subdivide into the lobar arteries in the lungs. The lobar arteries accompany the main bronchi into the lungs and then branches forming arterioles and then pulmonary capillaries that cling to alveoli. Here oxygen moves from the air sacs to the blood, and carbon dioxide from the blood moves to the air sacs. Next, the pulmonary capillary beds drain into venules which join to form two pulmonary veins exiting each lung. The four pulmonary veins then complete the circuit by dropping the blood off into the left atrium of the heart. The systemic system provides oxygenated blood to all body tissues. Blood leaves the left ventricle and heads for the aorta there is travels through the ascending aorta making its way to the aortic arch. The aortic arch then branches into three major branches the brachiocephalic trunk (branches into right common carotid and right subclavian), the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. These three vessels provide blood to the head, neck, and upper limbs, and also part of the thorax. The descending aorta runs along the anterior spine and is called the thoracic aorta when it reaches the thorax. Later it becomes known as the abdominal aorta as it reaches the abdominal cavity. The abdominal aorta supplies the abdominal walls, viscera, and ends at T4 level where it branches into right and left common iliac arteries to supply the pelvis and lower limbs. The superior vena cava vein receives systemic blood draining from all areas superior to the diaphragm except the heart wall. It unites with the right and left brachiocephalic veins and empties into the right atrium. Both brachiocephalic veins are formed by the joining of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. The inferior

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