Also called the backbone, it is comprised of 26 bones and supports the upper body. Information is generally transmitted from various parts of the body along the backbone and to the brain. The appendicular skeleton involves your arms and legs. Each arm is connected to the axial body by the shoulder (pectoral-sound) girdle. The girdles are what allow limbs their range of motion.
However, with motion you must know about levers. The framework of the body is covered in muscle which permits movement. When moving or lifting a heavy load, it’s easier to use levers, and in the body it’s the exact same. All levers use 5 different parts; Lever, Fulcrum, Muscle force, Resistive force and Torque. Lever; almost always the bone Fulcrum; the pivot point of the lever in which is usually the joint.
What is a Ligament and how does it work? Ligament is a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone or bone to cartilage and supports and strengthens joints. The main functions of ligaments are to keep the bones of the skeleton in a suitable alignment and prevent abnormal movements of the joints. What is a Tendon and how does it work? A tendon is tissue that connects muscles to bones.
Long bones – The major bones of the arms (humerus, radius, and ulna) and the legs (the femur, tibia, and fibula) are all long bones. Short bones – The short bones include all of the metacarpals and phalanges in the hands, the metatarsals and phalanges in the feet, and the clavicle (collarbone). Flat bones – The flat bones include the scapula (shoulder bone), the ribs, and the sternum (breastbone). Seasamoid bones – patella (knee cap) Irregular - vertebrae (spine) and the mandible (jaw) Human skeleton - anterior view Human skeleton - posterior view An example of a sesamoid bone (patella) The vertebral column (spine) Functions of the skeletal system are: 1. Protection - the cranium and ribs protect the brain and vital organs in the chest.
The articular capsule has two layers: -Fibrous capsule: the outer layer - Synovial membrane: the inner layer that secretes synovial fluid which lubricates to reduce friction. The surface of the knee joint, the patella lies within the joint capsule and has an important function which is to reduce friction during extension and to protect the knee joint. The muscles that facilitate the movement of the synovial joints are skeletal muscles. The muscles that move the knee joint are called quadriceps and hamstring. When the agonist which is the contracting muscle which, in this case is the quadriceps, it allows flexion of the knee joint while the antagonist which will be the hamstring, is the relaxed
A – Functional Anatomy and Biomechanics of Different Joints: Talorcrural Joint consists of the ligaments and muscles along with the distal tibia, medial malleolus and lateral malleolus which helps to structure a hinge joint and thus articulate on the talus.¹ Talus is the major weightbearer connecting the lower extremities to foot and allows for plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. ² However, the Subtalar Joint (STJ) comprises of the articulation between the talus and calcaneus and thus allow for pronation and supination of one’s feet. When pressure is established on STJ, it allows one to rotate their legs (extension and flexion on knees). These movements create profound reactions on one’s lower extremities leading to compensation. ³ Midtarsal
Anatomy of Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint The AC joint is one of the four major articulations associated with the shoulder complex. The joint is located on the outer part of the clavicle and is joined to a projection on the top of the scapula. The AC joint helps form the highest part of the shoulder. This joint allows a small amount of movement to occur between the clavicle and the acromion process. The AC joint allows the ability to raise the arm above the head.
Describe the structure and development of bone and the factors that influence it. Bone is living tissue that makes up the body's skeleton. The bone consists of blood vessels, nerve cells and living bone cells. Bones are made up of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and other minerals, as well as the protein collagen. Calcium is needed to make bones hard, which allows them to support your weight.
The skeletal system includes all of the bones and joints in the body. Each bone is a complex living organ that is made up of many cells,, protein fibers, and minerals. The skeleton provides support and protection for the soft tissues that make up the rest of the body. The skeletal system also provides attachment points for the rest of the body allowing movement. The skull is composed of 22 bones that aid in the support and movement, and protection of the brain.