Gas or its inability to escape is what causes volcanos to become violent. The longer gas is trapped, the more pressure builds up. The cause of gas building up is the result of the viscosity of the magma the gas is trapped in. Viscosity is the measure of the flow or how easily a liquid flows. If a liquid is viscous it is thick and will flow slowly like honey whereas a liquid that is nonviscous will flow like water.
Different types of rocks are created based on the amount of pressure. The higher the pressure, the more drastic the change. The temperature increases the deeper a rock is. This gives good possibilities for more diverse changes. Examples of regional metamorphic rocks include schist and gneiss.
Volcanic events occur due to the movement of plate tectonics- this can be at destructive, constructive or conservative boundaries. Hazards are created when these events have an impact on human life/ activity and come in the form of primary and secondary effects. Primary effects include pyroclastic flow, lava flow and volcanic gases. Volcanic gases are emitted from volcanoes almost constantly and include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide. These gases increase around the time of an eruption.
Acid rain as a result of industrialization has had many negative effects on the New England region in particular. The Adirondack Mountains are of special interest due to their soil composition that does not allow for the seizure of the two primary particles in acid rain. This has caused issues pertaining to the water reservoirs in the area that now are sometimes unable to support life do to the high acidity. Acid deposition as it is more formally called is typically composed of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. These two components are naturally occurring from sources like volcanoes but the industrial revolution has exponentially increased the amount of these chemicals in the air.
These are boundaries where the plats move towards each other but 1 plate travels underneath (subduction). The less dense oceanic plate is the plate that subsides under the denser continental plate. The oceanic plate with melt as it falls to the asthenosphere creating a mantle plume where we expect to see a strombolian (cone) volcano. These volcanoes are typically tall cone shaped volcanoes. They are as such because they lava is andesitic/rhyolitic which means the lava contains 55%+ silica content.
Everyday day across the world, plate tectonics and their respective movements cause various seismic and volcanic hazards and a common idea is that the poorest people suffer the greatest from the impacts of these hazards in their LDCs. This, however, is only true in some cases as there are several other factors that affect how severely people are impacted by the hazards in both human and physical ways. I personally disagree with this view and this is due to several topics I have studied considering both human and physical factors. The first point I will make is based simply on the fact that volcanoes and earthquakes can have different hazards within them both primary and secondary which can have the same impacts no matter whether you are rich or poor, a tectonic hazard does not specifically target poorer people, it affects the area surrounding the cause. With a volcano you can have different types of hazard depending on the location is respect to constructive and destructive margins and also including hot spots, at a constructive margin or hot spot you find shield volcanoes with basaltic lava and these eruptions are common enough that you can stay away from the danger zone at which point you are in little or no danger, Mauna Loa in Hawaii is a good example of this as nobody lives close enough to the vent to be in danger.
‘How do people and society respond to environmental hazards and what factors influence their choice of adjustments?’ (Cutter 1996). Discuss this statement with reference to examples of both natural and technological hazards. Introduction Environmental hazards fall under two headings: Chronic and Catastrophic. Catastrophic hazards are those with a high magnitude and low frequency. They create huge media attention as the rate of change from what would have been considered as ‘normal’ conditions is very high, for example an earthquake can turn an entire city to ruins and kill hundreds of people in just minutes.
The shield volcano’s shape is actually caused by the way that it forms. Basalt lava, which is thin and flows quickly, oozes out of a fissure in the ground and gradually runs downhill. Basalt lava runs so quickly that it can cover a great distance before it cools and hardens, so shield volcanoes have less steep rises that are extremely large in diameter. This formation process takes a long time, as the lava piles up slowly, eventually resulting in the gradual slope that gives shield volcanoes their name. It makes sense, given the way in which shield volcanoes form (so that their size is gradually increasing and reaches a vast extent) that some of the world’s largest volcanoes are members of the shield classification.
The steam brings hydrogen sulphide gas to the surface and pollutes the air unless controls are instituted. 2. Water contains many salts and minerals capable of causing water pollution. 3. The earth in a geothermal field may subside as the water is pumped out.
The first disaster causes a lot of fires in the forests. Also, it throws a lot of volcanic gases which causes air pollution, such as, ash fall, CO2, and methane. "Mud volcanoes are one of the significant natural sources of atmospheric methane"(Dimitrov, 2002). The volcanoes affect the lands and cause landslides. On the other hand, the second disaster affects the cities more than the forests.