Motivation will help induce an individual to think "If I am unable to do something or if I cannot, then I must put forth an effort and try." This in return will make a person do whatsoever it takes to obtain success. Motivation is in every function of one’s life. This paper will describe how personal history and emotion act as sources of motivation, explain the relationship between motivation and behavior, and clarify how motivation is exhibited in behavior. History Personal history in regards to motivation includes the environment and individuals in which a person is raised.
Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security. As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority.
Therefore, arts managers need to address motivating forces to motivate their employees. This assignment will explain the Theory of Acquired-Needs Motivation in arts management and then discuss its several applications. It will also evaluate the theory to arts organizations. Introducing the definition of motivation and its theories is essential in order to explain the Theory of Acquired-Needs Motivation. Motivation is a process that arises from research in physiological or psychological need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal (Byrnes 2009).
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory of motivation and personality developed by the psychologist Abraham H. Maslow (1908-1970). Maslow's hierarchy explains human behavior in terms of basic requirements for survival and growth. These requirements, or needs, are arranged according to their importance for survival and their power to motivate the individual. The most basic physical requirements, such as food, water, or oxygen, constitute the lowest level of the need hierarchy. These needs must be satisfied before other, higher needs become important to individuals.
The next level is known as security. This is the need of being secure, of being safe. “These needs can be satisfied by living in a safe area, medical insurance, job security, financial services.” (NetMBA, 2007) The two levels mentioned above are often classified as lower-order needs, while the remaining three are classified as higher-order needs. The third level is known as the belongingness level. People need to overcome feelings of loneliness.
For these active and natural processes of motivation and integration to operate effectively towards healthy development and psychological well-being, humans need particular biological and psychological “nutrients” (Deci, 1982) The three universal psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Deci, 1982). Autonomy can be thought of as the opportunity for choice, or the need to feel like the origin of personal action and controlling what goes into the outcome of one’s behaviour; “to experience one’s actions as originating from the self” (Deci & Ryan, 1991, p. 243). Relatedness can be thought of as relational security and attachment (Deci & Ryan, 1991). It encompasses a person’s desire to feel like others are authentically relating to them, their persuit to relate and care for others, and to feel satisfaction from their interactions with the outside world (Deci & Ryan, 1991). Competence can be thought of as optimal challenge in the triumph of goals (Deci & Ryan, 1991), or strivings to control outcomes of experience by understanding the instrumentalities that lead to desired
The levels are set into the shape of a pyramid, symbolizing the upward movement of human progression and motivation - from the bottom the most basic of physical needs that each human has to have for life survival, to the top, which is the psychological need and desire to reach our goals and true potential. The bottom (or first) level of the hierarchy is the physiological level. This level includes breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, and excretion. These are needs we have to have in order to be alive (this includes animals as well as humans). If these needs are not met, the body will not be able to survive, and will cease to exist (a.ka., die).
RIT1 Behavioral Influences: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy Theory of Motivation Behavioral Influences The Expectancy Theory of Motivation (Porter & Lawler, 1968; Vroom, 1964) is a model of behavioral choice or cognitive process for explaining an individual’s decision-making process. It focuses on how decisions are made to achieve the desired result rather than providing specific suggestions on what motivates individuals. The expectancy theory has some useful implications for motivating employees. It identifies several important things to motivate employees by influencing the person’s effort-to-performance expectancy, performance-to-reward expectancy, and reward value or personal goals valence. The expectancy theory has three key components: expectancy or effort, instrumentality or performance, and valence or reward.
The main behavioral theories are, Maslow- theory of hierarchy, Douglas McGregor’s- Theory X and Theory Y. and Paul Hersey and Kenneth Balchard-Situational leadership model (directive behavior and supportive behavior) Maslow- theory of hierarchy, Abraham Maslow developed the need theories. The theory assumes three things. It assumes that people are never satisfied, that the behavior is direct to meet the need for satisfaction, and that needs are classified from lowest to the highest in a hierarchical structure of importance. The below 1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
Looking at motivation as a theoretical framework to promote a positive workforce can assist businesses in meeting the challenges faced today. The purpose of this paper is to analyze various need theories of motivation and how they affect organizational behavioral. This will include Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation, McClelland’s Need Theory, and Herzberg's two-factor theory. Motivation can be defined as the “psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior” (Organizational Dynamics and Human Behavior, CMU pg. 112).