Stroop Effect: The Effects of Matching Words and Colors on the Reaction Time for the Brain. Introduction: The Stroop Effect was discovered in the 1930's by J. Ridley Stroop. In this discovery, he found that when reading the names of colors, it's more difficult to say the actual color rather than the name of the color. An example of this would be if the color orange was written in green letters, then you would say "GREEN" rather than "ORANGE." This may seem to be an easy task, but once attempted it was made obvious that it takes much longer for the brain to process the fact that it has to say the color of the letters versus the actual word.
In the first experiment, the task required participants to read the written color names of the words separately from the color of the ink (for example, the participants would read “red” no matter what color the ink was). In the second experiment, participants were required to say the color of the letters separately from the written word with the second kind of stimulus and also name the color of the dot squares. If the word “red” was written in blue, the participants would have to say “blue” and not red. In Stroop’s third experiment, the participants were tested at different stages of practice at the tasks and stimulus used in the first and second experiments, to account for the effects of association. John Ridley Stroop concluded that participants took much longer to complete the color reading in the second task than they
Murdock (1962) Murdock presented participants with a list of words at a rate of about one per second. After he showed them the words, the participants were required to recall as many of the words as they could. Murdock found that the words did not have an equal chance of being recalled and that some words, especially those that appeared first and those that came up last in the list, were better recalled than those in the middle. He called this serial position effect. The superior recall of items at the start of the list is called the primary effect, whilst the superior recall of the items at the end of the list is called the recency effect.
The results of my IAT concluded that I have a moderate automatic preference for light skin compared to dark skin. While taking the test, I knew the response that I wanted to put but because of the switching around I would accidently press the wrong letter. I guess in my mind I was trying to move fast while keeping up with the constant change. I feel as though the test should've given a little to no preference result for me. My impression of the IAT is that it may be accurate, but it really depends on the person taking it.
There is an individual memory representation according to Adam’s trace based recall. According to Schmidt’s schema based recall, there is only one memory representation for similar models. 2. In detail compare and contrast paradigms used to study motor learning and provide possible explanations for the pattern of result. (25 points) • The main paradigms used to study motor learning are response variability and random vs. block practice.
The experiment produces the primary effect, where many words are recalled from the beginning of the list, and the recency effect, where many words are also recalled from the end of the list, but not so many from the middle. This study also shows that there are separate short term and long term memory stores since the primary effect occurs because the words at the beginning of the list have been rehearsed, and so are transferred into the long term memory store. However, whilst this is going on, less attention is paid to the middle words and they tend to be lost unless they have some special significance to the individual. The words at the end of the list are well recalled because they are still fresh in the memory system unless there is a distractor task which causes this information to be lost through interference, displacement, or decay. This evidence can be seen as reliable since it was scientific, conducted in a laboratory, and produced quantative data that makes it easy to summarise and compare with other data.
There would be ink that came up that either corresponded with words of that ink color or words of another ink color. The aim for the participant was to quickly say the name of the ink color of the word and ignore reading the word. The hypothesis for the experiment was the average time taken to read
The experiment should show all of the different substances in the black ink mixture. The problem that will be answered is ‘What is the effect of the process of paper chromatography on the different components in black ink’. This will be solved when using paper chromatography the mixtures will be separated. Background information: Through research it has been discovered that paper chromatography can be defined as the technique of separating and analyzing the components of a mixture of liquids or gases by selective adsorption on a strip of paper. Chromatography uses the flow of solvent or gas to cause the components of a mixture to move differently from a starting point in a specific medium.
Can false memories be created in university students? : A test of a computerized experiment Benjamin Guy Williams University of the Sunshine Coast Abstract The experiment was designed to investigate the ability of participants to create false memories of words that were related to the words seen in a list. The aim of the experiment was to examine how reliable human memory is. In addition, the investigation discovered how the brain reacts to different stimuli submitted to it. Memories do not exist in isolation.
As Jones, Rock, Shaver, Goethals, & Ward’s (1968) results showed, when marking another person’s exam paper primacy effects can occur. Several other studies have also showed differing levels of primacy and recencey effects (Costabile & Klein, 2005; Smith, Greenlees, & Manley, 2009). Research also tells us that those that are highly motivated to think, will be less susceptible to the bias of order effects (Ybarra, Schaberg, & Keiper, 1999). This present research seeks to investigate whether primacy effects will occur using an end of sequence method. Also, whether primacy effects would be reduced, or non-existent in people that are highly motivated to think, compared to those that are not.