Amino Acids and Peptide Bonds Essay

726 WordsJan 9, 20153 Pages
Amino Acids and Peptide bonds, Protein Structure WGU Biochemistry GRT1 May 15, 2014 Proteins • Proteins play an important roll in the body. • Proteins are made up of smaller units called amino acids. • The sequence of the amino acid controls each protein’s function and structure. • Proteins make up an essential element of cell structure. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) • BSE or bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a neurological disease of cattle. • It is believed to be transmitted to cattle from ground up meat and bone that had been infected from sheep products that were fed to the cattle. • The outbreak grew as young calves were fed meat and bone meal that was infected with the prion disease. • In order for the next animal to be infected, the diseased prion must be in the feed. How BSE occurs at a molecular level. Leucine HO O H C H H2C CH H3C CH3 N Leucine • Hydrophobic, supplies a large proportion of the aliphatic side chains that constitute the hydrophobic cores of this class of protein. • Encoded by six codons • Essential amino acid • Acidity-2.36 (carboxyl), 9.60 (amino) ("Leucine," n.d.). • Important for protein synthesis. • Branched chain amino acid since it has an aliphatic side chain that is non linear. Different levels of protein structure Amino end Carboxyl end Pleated sheet Primary Structure Helix Tertiary Structure Secondary Structure Quaternary Structure Peptide bond made through dehydration ("Dehydration," n.d.) Peptide bond broken through hydrolysis ("Dehydration," n.d.) Four bonds that stabilize a protein structure Name of bond/interaction Hydrophobic bond Hydrogen bond Disulfide bond Ionic bond/salt bridge Types of amino acids Non polar Polar Covalent, cysteine bonds Positively and negatively charged Relative strength Very weak A little stronger but still very weak Strong Strong

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