For example, cultural feminists look to the different values associated with womanhood and femininity as a reason why men and women experience the social world differently. Other feminist theorists believe that the different roles assigned to women and men within institutions better explain gender difference, including the sexual division of labor in the household. Existential and phenomenological feminists focus on how women have been marginalized and defined as the “other” in patriarchal societies. Women are thus seen as objects and are denied the opportunity for self-realization. Gender Inequality: Gender-inequality theories recognize that women's location in, and experience of, social situations are not only different but also unequal to men's.
For the radical it is the most deep and significant social division. The feminists have advanced an idea of ‘sex politics’ in a similar way to ‘class politics’ of socialists. However, as conventional politics has typically ignored gender division feminists have been forced to develop their own concepts to aid in their analysis – one of such crucial ‘ideas’ is that of Patriarchy. Some feminists limit the terms use to describing power relationships within the family, and use terms such as ‘male dominance’ to discuss the wider world gender relations. However, they do hold that the dominance of the father within the family is symbolic of the supremacy in all other institution.
Nevertheless, it seems that he could not escape the dominant philosophy of his own society that women were the weaker sex. The question is why? Why did More believe that giving more rights and power to women would contribute to the creation of a perfect society? Also, why, yet giving women more rights and power than they usually would be given, he still maintained the patriarchal values of the sixteenth century? Even in the perfect Utopian world of Thomas More, the social status of women, the role they played in society and the general way they were treated, were influenced by the dominant view of the society at that time and by his own personal values.
Such myths, Beauvoir explains, are derived trough literature and Social beliefs. The construct of the “essence of women” have been grossly misconstrued by a male dominated world. In her essay, she strongly argues about the two-sided opposition of the “self” and “other” through an existentialist perspective, which is through the experience of the human condition. She boldly announces that the male has appointed himself as “self” and the female as “other” in order to gain dominion and authority to call the female inferior, passive, or weak. I will take an in depth look at the contradictions and myths that men have created of women as outlined by Beauvoir.
Each is responsible for his/her moral conduct. Jainism considers men and women as equals. In reality because of the gender stereotyping that has taken place for thousands of years in a patriarchal society and the inherent biological differences between men and women, the roles prescribed for men and women are different especially in a social and cultural setup. Jainism included women in the religious practice in the form of nuns from its earliest days of inception. Jainism is a religion of religious equality, devoted to recognizing the rights of all living creatures.
A Vindication of the Rights of Women’ is an early example of a feminist outlook; Wollstonecraft aims to define, establish and defend equal political, economic, and social rights and equal opportunities for women. In this extract, Wollstonecraft “speaks of passion”; she believes that women were not given the right choices; they were not educated to the full. This affects their choices and they don’t have the full knowledge that they should have been provided with. Jill tweedy was also a feminist writer, who had a balanced view of the relationships between men and women. She believed that women should be equal to men in relationships.
They do not believe that women should go out and have a professional job in the work force. Now, in the modern society there have been changes and men should cope and adapt to the changes of today’s society. Sexism is expressed as a separation of gender roles and differential access to privileges and opportunities. Traditional gender role stereotypes describe women as nurturers who are emotional, sensitive, and warm. They also describe women as unambitious, incompetent, weak, and conniving in their relational power (Adams, 2009; Williams & Best, 1990).
Even more restricting than economic rights were the social and political rights of women. They were expected to be silent observers, submissive to their husbands. Women who attempted to claim their views were seen as a threat to social order. This is significant in that the conservation of social order was a very important aspect of the Elizabethan society. Gender roles during the Elizabethan era were clearly defined, with men reigning superior over women.
Some argue that the traditional Quranic and Shari’a view of women as the weak and the legally subordinate sex (for example lacking the same rationality as men) poses a serious impediment to women full emancipation and to their achievement of equality in both the private and public domain. Others say that Islam, the religion, is not the problem and that restriction placed on women are the result of patriarchal attitudes. Religious men and women view the Islam codes as offering appropriate protection for women and a basis for stable family life. But, there is no denying that textual and scriptural Islam has clear guidelines concerning the legal and social status and the appropriate behavior of women. Studies of socialism (Wikan 1982) patterns in the Middle East all emphasize early differentiation in the care and handling of boys and girls.
With this background, Jane tries to deliver the message that the people were restrained and they suffered by the rules set by the society such as family reputation, women’s position, and class division. The society expected women to rely on men because of women’s social position. In order to achieve this goal, a women’s life was limited mentally and; educated physically for needs of marriage. Women who are intelligent enough to be independent cannot meet the society’s standard. Women have to depend on men.