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Q1. Evaluate the title of Alexander II as 'The Czar Liberator.' A1. 'Czar' commonly also known as 'Tsar' was an official title given to a supreme ruler in Russia. And 'Liberator' as we all know is a person who frees or liberates someone from a situation especially imprisonment and slavery. Alexander II was given the title of, 'The Czar Liberator' as he was well known for his achievement in abolishing Serfdom in Russia during his prosperous reign from 1855-1881. When Nicholas I, Alexander's father died and left the throne for Alexander to ascend, Russia was in deep crisis. The first year of his reign he devoted to the Crimean War. After the fall of Sevastopol he smartly negotiated for peace under his trusted counselor, Prince Gorchakov. Alexander then thought of beginning a period of radical reforms. He soon started reforms and was backed and encouraged by the public whole heartedly, but he once again smartly and wisely carried out these reforms with autocratic power. Alexander realized the backwardness of Russia in the military and technological aspects during the Crimean War and thought of emancipating the serfs to prevent a peasantry uprising. He also took this step as he thought serfdom was hampering the growth of Russia in various sectors. These realizations especially the 'Edict Of Emancipation' earned Alexander II the title of, 'The Czar Liberator.' The Edict Of Emancipation is regarded as one of the greatest liberating acts in the history of Europe. This edict set up a wave of reforms all throughout Russia and pleased the serfs to a great extent. According to the Edict of Emancipation the serfs were allowed to own one-thirds of the land of the landlords and were free to do anything they desired on the land. But there was one condition put forward by the Government, that was the money which the Government had paid on behalf of the serfs to acquire the land

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