Albert Bruce Sabin
Albert Bruce Sabin (August 26, 1906 – March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher best known for having developed an oral polio vaccine. Sabin was born in Poland to Jewish parents, Jacob and Tillie Krugman Saperstein. In 1922 he immigrated with his family to America. In 1930 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and changed his name to Sabin. Sabin received a medical degree from New York University in 1931.
Sabin and other researchers, most notably Jonas Salk in Pittsburgh and Hilary Koprowski and Herald Cox in New York and Philadelphia, sought a vaccine to prevent the illness. The Sabin vaccine, an oral vaccine, consists of weakened forms of the viruses that cause polio. It protects the body against polio without causing the disease. In 1955, Salk's vaccine was released and was effective in preventing most of the complications of polio, but did not prevent the initial intestinal infection. The Sabin vaccine is easier to give than the earlier vaccine developed by Salk in 1954, and its effects last longer. Those who received the Salk vaccine could pass on the polio virus. Sabin first tested his live oral vaccine at the Chillicothe Ohio Reformatory in late 1954.
From 1956-1960, he worked with Russian colleagues to perfect the oral vaccine and prove its effectiveness and safety. The Sabin vaccine worked in the intestines to block the poliovirus from entering the bloodstream. It was in the intestines, Sabin had discovered, that the poliovirus multiplied and attacked. Thus, the oral vaccine broke the chain of transmission of the virus and allowed for the possibility that polio might one day be wiped out. Sabin also developed vaccines against other viral diseases, including encephalitis and dengue. He also investigated possible links between viruses and some forms of cancer.
In 1983, Sabin developed calcification of the cervical spine, which caused paralysis and intense pain. This condition was successfully treated...