Agricultural Essay

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ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT Add : D/108, Sec-2, Noida (U.P.), Pin - 20 1301 Email id : helpdesk@campus100.in Call : 09582948810, 09953007628, 0120-2440265 Chronicle IAS Academy [2] CONTENTS Sl. No. TOPICS Pg. No. 1. Introduction......................................................................................... 5-10 2. Ecosystem ......................................................................................... 11-18 3. Biodiversity. ...................................................................................... 19-48 4. Environmental Pollution & Degradation ....................................... 49-88 5. Climatic Change ............................................................................. 89-109 6. Human Impact on the Natural Environment. ........................... 110-125 7. EIA & Environmental Audit ....................................................... 126-138 8. Environmental Conservation ....................................................... 139-152 Chronicle IAS Academy [3] Chronicle IAS Academy [4] INTRODUCTION CHRONICLE IAS ACADEMY A CIVIL SERVICES CHRONICLE INITIATIVE ECOLOGY Ecology is a science that studies the interdependent, mutually reactive and interconnected relationship between the organisms and their physical environment on the one hand and among the organisms on the other hand. The word ‘Ecology’, derived from the Greek word: oikos meaning habitation, and logos meaning discourse or study, implies a study of the habitations of organisms. Ecology was first described as a separate field knowledge in 1866 by the German zoologist, Ernst Haeckel, who invented the word ‘oeckologie’ for “the relation of the animal to its organic as well as its inorganic environment, particularly its friendly or hostile relation to those animals or plants with which it comes in contact”. Ecology has been

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