This essay will discuss Norwood’s notion of hip hop and its ability to aid racial freedom and Black Nationalism. Slave narrative is a literary account of a slave’s life; Norwood states that hip hop is a modern day slave narrative that brings to light the problems African Americans have to face in the 21st century. As well as hip hop being a slave narrative for modern day African Americans globalisation has enabled other minorities and oppressed peoples to use this culture as tool and a political weapon. Minorities such as Pacific Islander’s and Māori of Aotearoa, New Zealand have adapted hip hop and its culture (Mitchell). Songs such as Patea Maori club 1984 "Poi E" combine African American style with Maori language and tradition, some groups such as Upper Hutt
It can also be seen as the retaliation and expression of the great social and cultural change that took place in America in the early 20th century under the influence of industrialization and the beginning of a new mass culture. The Harlem Renaissance included the Great Migration, contributing factors that led to a rise of African Americans to the northern cities and the First World War. This also produce factors that led to a declined era called the Great Depression. During that time, hundreds and thousands of educated and intellectual black African Americans moved from an economically depressed, low budget rural south to industrial cities like Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, and
Pan-Africanism has covered calls for African unity (both as a continent and as a people), nationalism, independence, political and economic cooperation, and historical and cultural awareness (especially for Afrocentric versus Eurocentric interpretations). Some claim that Pan-Africanism goes back to the writings of ex-slaves such as Olaudah Equiano and Ottobah Cugoano. Pan-Africanism here related to the ending of the slave trade, and the need to rebut the 'scientific' claims of African inferiority. For Pan-Africanists, such as Edward Wilmot Blyden, part of the call for African unity was to return the Diaspora to Africa, whereas others, such as Frederick Douglass, called for rights in their adopted countries. Blyden and
The second way is “Nigga” and that is used by African Americans when talking to their friend. The number one argument of this word is, why is it okay for African Americans to use this word if they are so entirely offended by it? That is the one question that seems to never be answered because what seems to be lack of responsibility in the African American race for refusing to stop using it themselves. In reality there is no positive way in which someone can use this word because in the dictionary it is defined as an insult. However, African Americans have taken a spin on the word and used it in pop culture.
Joseph Conrad, in his novella Heart of Darkness, contributes to the western concept of Africa’s inferiority to Europe due to his perspective as a white European that he has innately acquired; his intentions, however, cannot be defined through the available evidence. In fact, this novella can be seen as Conrad’s take on the European views of Africans from an outsider perspective. When making judgements on the unknown, people are bound to stick to stereotypes and prejudgements--in this case, Conrad and his white European audience. Whether, in doing so, he is attempting to be nasty towards Africans or not is irrelevant to the fact that Conrad’s perspective is one-sided and racist. Just as Kurtz is a product of his one-sided European upbringing, as we see in the novella, so is Conrad.
The reason for the first layer of narration is that “Heart of Darkness” is not so much about what happened in Africa as it is about the psychological, moral and spiritual impressions those events left on someone with completely different ideals and values and unconnected to what happened. The reason to the second layer of narration is less obvious to me at first. I think the role of “I” is of a witness and listener; “I”, like readers, learned that our ideas about “civilization” can be founded on lies, corruptions and unspeakable horrors. By the end of the story, Marlow’s tale significantly changes the narrator’s attitude towards the ships and men of the past. It leaves a profound psychological effects on “I” and readers; it prompts us to ponder the dark side of our nature.
AFRICAN-AMERICAN LITERATURE African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. It begins with the works of such late 18th-century writers as Phillis Wheatley and Lucy Terry, reaching early high points with slave narratives of the nineteenth century. The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s was a time of flowering of literature and the arts. Writers of African-American literature have been recognized by the highest awards, including the Nobel Prize to Toni Morrison. Among the themes and issues explored in this literature are the role of African Americans within the larger American society, African-American culture, racism, slavery, and equality.
It started in the 18th century as a reaction to British imperialism and it later gained momentum as a driving force to segregate blacks from political, economic and social activities in South Africa. Afrikaner nationalism created a feeling of white supremacy among some Afrikaner and led them to create ‘apartheid’. Apartheid is the segregatory policies passed by the National Party after winning the 1948 elections. Those policies were aimed at separating South African people according to race and treating blacks as inferior. Keeping the races separate was seen by the Afrikaner people as the only way that they, as a minority in South Africa, could protect their language and culture and survive as a nation.
However, with the help of African culture and values, the construction of black family has been able to overcome the obstacles and break its’ way into the middle class from humble beginnings. In order to fully understand the function and organization of the African American family, we must examine Africa not Europe as a primary basis. As argued by Africanist and anthropologist, Niara Sudarkasa “many of the debates concerning explanations of Black family are waged upon false dichotomies. (Sudarkasa 90)” She goes further to state “the experience of slavery in America is juxtaposed to the heritage of Africa as the explanation of certain aspects of Black family structure. (Sudarkasa 90)” A fellow black scholar in the field, Allen, argued in 1979 that Black family patterns cannot be explained without reference to the socio-economic contexts in which they developed, and this is extremely true.
Then Kloby helps us look at real examples of different times in which colonialism has hurt Africans more than helped them. All of these authors have come to one clear consensus: colonialism has ultimately destroyed Africa’s chances of becoming a great and powerful continent. In Mies’ essay, she tends to be very pessimistic about the Africa being able to “catch-up” to other already developed countries. Mies says that, “the poverty of the underdeveloped nations is not as a result of ‘natural’ lagging behind but the direct consequence of the overdevelopment of the rich industrial countries who exploit the so-called periphery in Africa” (151). She denies that possibility that Africa can catch up by following the same path of industrialization, technological progress, and capital accumulation as the more developed countries have used.