Traditional Native American ceremonial ways can vary widely, and are based on the differing histories and beliefs of individual tribes, clans and bands. Early European explorers describe individual Native American tribes and even small bands as each having their own religious practices. There are some features appear to be common to many basic religions that still exist or existed in some form in the nineteenth and twentieth century’s, when anthropologists began to study them. These features have begun also appeared in the historical religions of which we are aware. These common features are; • Animism • Magic •
There are several defining characteristics of Shamanism. It involves complex rituals, some form of transcendence, and mediation between the spirit and earthly world (Jones and Molyneaux). These key features are exemplified in Paleolithic cave art, which, like Shamanism, has been associated with societies and cultures who were primarily hunter-gatherers (Smart 14). It has been proven, through excavations and thorough analysis, that Paleolithic cultures were hunter-gatherers. Glynn Isaac, archeologist at Harvard University, exposes a 1.5 million year old site in Kenya.
Sola Ajimatanrareje Mr. Feere Intercultural Communication 122 27 April 2011 Nigerian Culture – Yoruba Nigeria is located on the west side of Africa. Nigeria is made up of many ethnic groups, over 50 languages, and over 250 dialects and ethnic groups. There are three main ethnic groups, which are also the three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, and Yoruba. My main focus will be on the Yoruba culture. Although Yoruba people live on the west coast of Africa, they can also be found in the eastern Republic of Benin and Togo.
The African tradition of decorating the body both enhances one’s beauty and gives a person a higher status in their tribe” (African). Although African body art and scarification fuels many prejudices about the African people from the outside world, body art has existed as an important aspect of African history that allows self-expression in various tribes because forms of body decoration have existed for over five thousand years. Body art has existed as an important aspect of African history because of the many styles of body decoration that exist. Africans use scarification, body paint, mud coloring, body piercing, and lip disks to embellish their bodies. Scarification, also known as “The Proud Mark”, describes the art where a person marks his or her skin in decorative patterns.
Describe three typical life-cycle ceremonies and give an example of each from a specific indigenous religion. Indigenous religions, which are very often called “native,” “local,” “ethnic,” or “traditional” belong to the world’s sixth largest religious group, if considered as a section. They are highly correlated to the ancient interpretation of humankind’s great traditions, and their visions about the world around them. Such religions are largely practiced among “the tribal people,” where its roots had been discovered in Africa, and later on continued in: India, Australia (Aborigines), New Zealand (Maoris), Central/Southeast Asia, and Latin America (Santa Clara University/Indigenous Religion). As well as many other religions/likewise, traditional religions belong to those, whom practicing and celebrating life-cycle rituals play an essential role throughout the one’s life.
The Benin artworks were not just pieces of art but part of an oral tradition, which belonged to the people of Benin that contained African accounts that weren’t written about the ethnicity, culture or colonisation, they were “passed down through stories andobjects and art.” The people of Benin used this as visual record through the works of art,their society is a very complex culture and their plaques tell a documentary. Due to the circumstances of their removal and the important role which they play in African society and culture, some controversy surrounds the ownership of the Benin sculptures. One group believes that they should be returned to their original owners while the other believes that they should remain in museums. One of the critical adaptations to Benin artwork is how it is located in Museums around Europe, Benin art is not easily positioned into the category of art or anthropological. This is incredibly hard when the Benin artworks fit into both categories.
Shamanism, Vodou, and Santeria, three Afro-American religions, each in their own ways grant us a communal relationship with the Spiritual world and the powers it inhabits through the ritual uses of healing, divination, dance, and the other many facets and concepts each religion presents, and it’s a shame that society has skewed these religions to being something they’re not. Everything from the initiation methods to the structure of the ceremonies, societally, is presented as a macabre display of mutilation, manipulation, or violence. In reality, however, these practices are inseparably and inexplicably tied to the Spiritual realm, and it is the goal of each practitioner to be an active participant in this bond. Each of the three main religions
They now use instruments like the piano and guitar. Also they have been highly influenced by Western music. The history of African music has always brought much controversy since it is hard to say how music really sounded before British colonization. African music was most commonly transmitted orally so it was rare to find a written record of it. Music, dance and story telling are among the forms of art that have been kept century after century in Africa.
Week 2 Comparative Religions W01 Dr. Tim Davis Question 1: While the Native Americans and the Africans inhabited two different continents, their belief system has a plethora of similarities pertaining to their core values. The basis of their religion also, in some ways, epitomizes modern day religion such as rites of passage. Their differences are shallow in context when it comes to what they view as sacred and holy and including religious rituals that are performed for a specific reason or transformation. Both Native American and African mythologies center around the ideology of harmony, balance, and cyclical nature of all beings through animistic symbolization. To a certain degree, all outsiders or nonnatives who study the belief
These sacred events have sacrificed all kinds of behavior in order gain control of the spirit world. Rituals are another source of sacred practices such as Igbo rituals. Igbo tribes worship the goddess of earth, called Chukwu, or Chineke. The Igbo people envision that each person has their own spirits which could decide their fate. They have special ceremonies or rituals that mark significant events of life cycles.