African American Urban Communities

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Introduction Throughout the course of American history, people have lived in communities based on their common values, economic resources, and social statuses. These communities have been instrumental in further developing the values of a group while also providing economic support in the forms of social and cultural capital. These sets of groups and communities within the US serve as the foundations for the makeup of the entire American populace. Traditionally, the differences between community structures in terms of wealth and access to resources varied in moderation with respect to one another, when overlooking obvious examples of marginalized people. In the 1950s, CEOs lived within the same communities as the line workers of the assembly…show more content…
The methodology of their studies was based on the comparisons of cities with high and low levels of segregation and the effects on the society based on the changes in those levels of segregation. study gives credence to the argument that the isolation of the black community was a driving force for the concentrations of poverty within black urban neighborhoods. Economic dislocation is held responsible for the many of the societal problems that these communities grapple with. It is concisely argued that the withdraw of economic resources within the black urban communities were instrumental in the creation of what they call the “underclass.” It was through this economic restructuring, of the cities in which the majority of African-Americans lived, that the opportunities for a large demographic effectively disappeared. The trends of isolation of poor communities demonstrate the negative effects of a downward spiral of poverty that continually worsens its…show more content…
Putnam(2000) documents that the levels of interactions between individuals is subsiding as the levels of civic, religious, political, and other collective activities are lessening. He contributes the waning of social mobility to this phenomenon, as people are becoming less engaged in their communities. To assess these changes in social activity, he analyzed the membership and participation rates of national organizations and groups over the course of several decades. As he notes that there is an obvious lack of exchanges between the people in different socioeconomic groups and a growing decline in the amount of community engagement amongst the members of those groups. He attributes a lack of social capital development to this, which as he argues, social capital is a proponent in creating a more well-connected community which is beneficial to society. As Durkheim originally argued sense of social cohesion is essential in developing a trusting and trustworthy society which can leads to more reciprocity between individuals. As with many of the other theories based on the health and well-being of a society, the notion of social cohesion has a circular nature that when functioning properly multiplies the positive effects and, inversely, when functioning incorrectly it compounds the negative. Putnam(2000) posits that “Frequent interaction
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