African American 111
December 9 2013
Booker T. Washington, educator, reformer and the most influential black leader of his time preached a philosophy of self-help, racial solidarity and accomadation. He urged blacks to accept discrimination for the time being and concentrate on elevating themselves through hard work and material prosperity. He believed in education in the crafts, industrial and farming skills and cultivation. This is what was said that would win the respect of whites and lead to African Americans being fully accepted as citizens and integrated into all strata of society. On the other hand W.E.B. Du Bois, a towering black intellectual, scholar and political thinker said the opposite. Du Bois said that Washington’s strategy would serve only to perpetuate white oppression. Du Bois advocated political action and a civil rights agenda. In addition, he argued that social change could be accomplished by developing the small group of college-educated blacks he called "the Talented Tenth:" At the time, the Washington/Du Bois dispute polarized African American leaders into two wings--the 'conservative' supporters of Washington and his 'radical' critics. Washington was more of a quiet person while Du Bois was more outspoken.
I feel as though it was a push and pull. They were pushed from the south because the southerners didn’t want them there and it was a pull because they found better opportunities in jobs, freedom, and a better living. Blacks felt more like they were welcomed and equal when they went to the north. Insects destroyed the cotton crops and the prices brought an economic depression among the south. Lastly African Americans suffered under "Jim Crow" laws in the South that segregated schools, restaurants, hotels, railroad cars, and even hospitals. Blacks were effectively kept from voting by laws requiring a literacy test and a poll tax. Whites were exempted from either test by a "grandfather clause"; if...