Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

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Human Body Systems Stage 1 Biology Discuss the similarities and differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration: There are two types of cellular respiration: aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Both undergo a metabolic process which breaks down monosaccharides such as glucose substrates to release energy for biological work such as movement, synthesis of new molecules and maintains a constant internal state. Aerobic respiration is identical in animals and plant cells and it occurs in the presence of oxygen and is the full breakdown of glucose in the mitochondria of cells to release much energy and allow the production of much adenosine triphosphate (ATP). However anaerobic respiration produces different products in animals and plant cells, it occurs in the absence of oxygen and is the partial breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm of cells, releasing less energy and allows the production of less adenosine triphosphate. Adenosine triphosphate is the energy storage molecule made using energy released during respiration and subsequently broken down into adenosine diphosphate and phosphate so that its stored energy is released to allow activities in cells to be performed. The reaction is summarized as follows: adenosine diphosphate+phosphate+energy⇌adenosine triphosphate | Both aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration begin with glycolysis in the cytoplasm. During glycolysis the substrate glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules. Enough energy is released to make 4 ATP molecules, but 2 ATP molecules are used so that the net gain is 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Then if oxygen is available both animal and plant cells carry out aerobic respiration in the mitochondria of the cells. Many small, regulated steps (called the Krebs Cycle and the electron transfer system) occur in the mitochondria as the substrate pyruvate molecules
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