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A Second Haitian Revolution: John Brown, Toussaint Louverture, and the Making of the American Civil War Matthew Clavin Civil War History, Volume 54, Number 2, June 2008, pp. 117-145 (Article) Published by The Kent State University Press DOI: 10.1353/cwh.0.0001 For additional information about this article http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cwh/summary/v054/54.2.clavin.html Access Provided by Hunter College Libraries at 09/13/12 2:35AM GMT A Second Haitian Revolution: John Brown, Toussaint Louverture, and the Making of the American Civil War Matthew Clavin “One of the most extraordinary men of a time when so many extraordinary men appeared.”1 The French historian Alphonse Beauchamp, who wrote these words in the Universal Biography at the opening of the nineteenth century as a series of democratic revolutions in Europe and throughout the Americas came to an end, did not intend them for George Washington, the Virginia planter who led Britain’s thirteen North American colonies to independence. Nor did he intend them for Napoleon Bonaparte, the Corsican soldier who brought order out of the chaos of the French Revolution and conquered Europe, or Simon Bolivar, the Venezuelan aristocrat who ended Spanish rule throughout much of Latin America. They referred instead to François Dominique Toussaint Louverture, the black general and former bondman who led an army of rebel slaves to victory over their former masters as well as the Research and travel assistance from the American Antiquarian Society, the Library Company of Philadelphia, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Gilder Lehrman Institute, and the Virginia Historical Society made this article possible. I am deeply indebted to each of these remarkable institutions. I presented a version of this article at the Conference on the African American Civil War Experience held at the University of
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