Social learning theories relate to the explanation of risk factors involving the social processes and individuals prone to criminal activity. The individual’s personal morals, behavior, and environment combined influence learning. Modeling, beliefs, and differential reinforcement are three dominant areas of social learning that provide a foundation for an individual to learn to engage in criminal activity. Modeling the behavior of peers, family, and friends can influence decisions that may lead to criminal activity. Differential reinforcement regarding crime offers the opportunity for an individual to instruct another individual in the commission of crime by reinforcing particular behaviors often but not enforcing punishment.
Ucas personal statement draf 1 Criminology is a subject that will always be relevant in society because Criminology looks at the different aspects such as why criminal offences are committed within society. Could it be the impact of primary and secondary socialisation on each individual? Another question that I feel is important is the criminal justice system effective? In my opinion I feel that these two vital questions are fundamental to understanding why crimes are committed. My interest into the study of crime emanated from the television series “The Bill” I understand the hyper reality and fictionalization of television programmes but this became the starting point of my curiosity.
Sociology functions through study of home, family, school and education, religion, government, industry and work. The scientific study of human affairs ultimately provides the body of knowledge and principles that enables us to control the conditions of social life and improve them. Sociology has been an instrument in changing and understanding our attitude towards other human beings. It is through the study of sociology that our whole outlook on various aspects of crime has changed. The criminals are now treated as human beings suffering from mental deficiencies and efforts of rehabilitations are being made.
These concept explain crime at levels of the society, the individual, and the group. An individual’s potential for criminality depends on the competition between associations that treat criminal behavior positively and those who treat it negatively (Vandelay, 2010, p.1) The main points of Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory are the nine propositions which are one that criminal behavior is learned second which is similar to the first proposition is that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other people in an attempt to communicate. The third main point or proposition is that the principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. The fourth main point is that when criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes; the techniques of committing the crime which are sometimes complicated or very simple and the specific motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. The fifth main point is the specific direction of motives and drive is learned from the definition of the legal codes whether it is favorable or unfavorable.
Many people ask, why does crime occur, who commits the crimes and why. We also ask the question of whether or not economic class, race, ect, has anything to do with why crime occurs. Theories have been conjured upon these acts to try to give meaning on why, what happens takes place. In this essay I would like to take the time to explain these theories to help others understand and maybe change their own viewpoints. Crime can affect the way individuals perceive others generally creating bias and prejudice within a person’s frame of thought; hopefully we can make someone think a little differently.
According to “Merriam-Webster” (2011), “research is a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.” The research process is flexible, involving different steps that work best together. Research requires a clear process to ensure that the research can be replicated and the outcome has verifiable results. The research process in criminology or criminal justice will help the individual in the following areas: • Help him or her gain proficiency in crime, criminology, and justice. • Understand the human experience and function of diversity in the study of criminal justice. • Help him or her develop skills in analysis, critical thinking, and synthesis of informational sources about criminal and social justice, and research.
Mills also feels that the sociological imagination works to distinguish between the "personal troubles of individual surroundings" and the "public issues of social structure." I think the core idea that Mills is describing is that the sociological imagination gives us the ability to perceive both history and the present and relate it to the problems that we are experiencing in our everyday lives. He felt that in order to better understand the concept of Sociology we must examine the nature of how personal experiences may be interpreted as being elements of wider social processes and structures. This requires that we develop a sociological imagination. Mills implies that by posing questions about how sociologists gain knowledge of the social world and exploring issues of self-knowledge, cultural differences, and the practical significance of the discipline we can gain a better understanding of how cultures interact with one another.
In “Causes of Prejudice,” Parrillo would like his audience to see that knowing the differences between the social and psychological perspectives will give a deeper understanding of inter-group relations and the rise of prejudice. These differences branch out into several categories that encapsulate an individual and may or may not be just cause for this insidious behavior towards a group or an individual. The psychological path is noted as being on four levels within an individual’s mien: prejudice, self-justification, personality, and frustration. The sociological approach is geared towards exploring behavior from within a group setting as opposed to an individual’s specific demeanor. His examples prove that there is more than one cause for prejudice and that we must take all of these into account to fully understand how prejudice can come about.
Sociology's emphasis in criminology uses complex sociological theories in order to analyze, explain and overall prevent criminal behavior within societies social structure, laws, processes, and actions. When it comes to the study of behavior there are a few theories that set out to understand the scientific study of law breaking we refer to as criminology. Serious attempts are made to define and describe the causes of criminal activity which has a core objective of analyzing crime as a social phenomenon . My first paper of this semester will contain and discuss how basic sociological theories such as functionalism, conflict and symbolic interactionism impact the sociological institution of criminology and the process of making laws, breaking laws, and reacting to the breaking of these laws. In addition to these theories there are as many as 10 other theories includig an array of approaches to the understanding of criminology through classical and strain theory as well as biological, psychological, feminist and labeling perspectives to name a few.
Social Structure Theory Sue Benitez CJA/314 April 1, 2013 Renee Grengs Social Structure Theory Social Structure Theory is “a theory that explains crime by reference to the economic and social arrangements in society. This type of theory emphasizes relationships among social institutions and describes the types of behavior that tend to characterize groups of people rather than individuals” (Schmalleger, p. 151). Julio Rivera’s murder in the video “Senseless Hate Crime” can be acknowledged and studied using a social structure theoretical application. The following will explain how the video supports the theory, will explain what social issues were raised, and will show what some of the possible ramifications will be for social policy change. There are three major types of Social Structure Theory; Social Disorganization, Strain Theory, and Culture Conflict Theory.