A study from the 1970’s Gateway Theory showed that there were three stages of drug use. The first stage is that most understudies began with beer or wine, next being the use of hard alcohol, cigarettes, or both and finally, the third stage was the use of marijuana. After going through these stages, they would try other illicit drugs. The order of initiation is a key part in someone eventually using illicit drugs. An interpretation of this theory is that young adults are exposed to alcohol and tobacco, which in turn makes the person more likely to go use other, more dangerous drugs.
Addictive disorders like drug abuse are the most widespread and intransigent mental health problems facing us today. Many problems of alcohol use involve difficulties that stem solely from the intoxicating effects of the substances. Dependence occurs when an individual develops a tolerance for the substance or exhibits withdrawal symptoms when it is not available. Drug abuse disorders may involve physiological dependence on substances, such as opiates- particularly heroin-or barbiturates; however psychological dependence may also occur with any of the drugs that are commonly used today-for e.g. marijuana.
The following literature reviews show the extent of peer pressure on adolescent alcohol and the other factors that may have a contribution to it. Impact of Peer Pressure on Risky Behaviour (alcohol abuse) Peer pressure refers to the influences that a group of friends or peers can have over each other. It is common among adolescents who are at a time in their lives where development of a separate identity from the identity perceptions their parents have of them is at a peak. Additionally, it is at this time that peers are trying to fit in with their group and therefore find themselves in activities or risky behavior that they would otherwise partake in. Peer pressure has no demographic boundaries affecting males and females over a wide age range in different ways with negative implications.
It has been studied that marijuana is addictive, a “gateway drug”; leads to harder drug use, interferes with fertility, impairs driving ability, and injures the lungs, immune system, and brain (medicalmarijuana.procon.org). Marijuana is well known to be able to induce anxiety disorders, including panic attacks. More rarely, when used by the wrong individuals, it may serve as a trigger for psychotic states, including
The family dynamic may also have bearing on the level of influence that peers have on a child to decide to dabble in substances, such as if the child is in a single parent home, if the parents or parent use drugs and alcohol themselves, the availability of the drugs, and the neighborhood that the child lives. Some studies have shown that the stronger the family dynamic, the less likely that the adolescent is to succumb to the pressure to become involved in drugs and alcohol, also family’s that consisted of a father or step father, showed less of a give- in factor to peer pressure to use substances as well (umich.edu). Adolescents are at the stage in life where the internal battle of fitting in with their peers, and pleasing their parents has arisen, and parents, at this stage and age, spend less time with the child, so have less of a direct influence on their child, so to keep the child on the right path, certain precautions when taken, may help. Children are going to be faced with the ridicule and rejection that comes with making the right choices and not choosing to do the wrong thing for the sake of being in the “cool” crowd and or fitting in. Nurturing children, and building a strong self-esteem and sense of self-worth makes the child stronger and more confident in themselves, and able to stand by their beliefs.
Heroin Addiction Treatment Options 1 Can Heroin Addiction be treated? Alternative Treatment Modalities for Heroin Dependence. Maritza Padilla Psychology – 230-1241 Professor B. Harrington November 3, 2012 Heroin Addiction Treatment Options 2 Heroin is a powerful narcotic derived from morphine, which is obtained from the opium poppy. Heroin impacts the brain and acts as a painkiller. It affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain by depressing nerve transmission in the sensory pathways of the spinal cord and brain that signal pain.
Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. I’m trying to find out ways to help reduce usage and abuse against teenagers and young adult to help better the younger generation and make them a strong minded human being. Reducing this can benefit the society in major ways because most of the younger adults who drop out of school are related to illicit drug usages and abuse. I. “Young people and drugs abuse”.
Drug Use and Delinquency Response Debbie Johnson CJS/240 June 21, 2011 Kenneth Jack Breinden What is the main reason of youth drug use? Professional believe youths who are involve with elicit substance are simply alienating themselves form the cultural norms of society in order to make a statement. While other professional, on the other hand, believe those juveniles who participate experiment with drugs other than alcohol and tobacco allow themselves to fall into negative peer pressures as a result of wanting to rebel, protest, hold a degree of resistance to authority toward ones parents and administrators or obtained characteristics for unconventional behavior during their adolescence. Juveniles may use drugs as a result of insufficient parental guidance, strong family bond, supervision or the presence of physical, psychological and substance abuse within, the juvenile’s home (Steffenhagen, & Polich 2009). How does drug use relate to delinquency?
Psychoactive – cannabis is usually smoked in a roll-up or pipe. It is also frequently ingested orally. Effects: stoned, increased heart rate, reduced blood sugar level, decreased sensory awareness, increased sensory awareness, etc. Street name Effects Risks Alcohol Booze Relaxant, feel less anxious and more sociable Slurred speech, nausea, psychological and physical dependence Amphetamines Speed, whizz, billy, uppers Euphoria, increased energy Anxiety, panic, paranoia Benzodiazepines Blues, downers, tranqs Sedation, relaxation Quickly develop
Adolescence is a delicate time in one’s life because it is the transitional stage from childhood to adulthood and is a time when a young person goes through the stage of identity-versus-identity confusion. Erikson believed that in order for an adolescence to have healthy relationships and a solid foundation of who they are, they must go through each life transitional stages successfully. Erickson believed that if adolescence’s got struck in their transitional stages of life it would cause them to not be able to identify their role in life. Trauma can cause a great disruption in an adolescence life transition, especially the trauma of sexual abuse (Feldman, 2006). John