Acid And Bases

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1. Define an acid. Give the names and formula of 5 common acids Arrhenius theory shows us that acids are sources of H ions in aqueous solution and in Brønsted-Lowry theory an acid is a substance that donates protons. Or the Lewis theory "We are inclined to think of substances as possessing acid or basic properties, without having a particular solvent in mind. An acid is one which can employ a lone pair from another molecule in completing the stable group of one of its own atoms." The first two theories, Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry are to do with the protons; exchange between substances, the Lewis however looks at the electron arrangement of the substance. Acetic acid HC2H3O2 acetate Carbonic acid H2CO3 carbonate Hydrochloric acid HCl chloride Nitric acid HNO3 nitrate Phosphoric acid H3PO4 phosphate Sulphuric acid H2SO4 sulphate 2. Give 3 common properties of acids Turns blue litmus red Conducts an electric current Taste sour Reacts with metals to produces hydrogen gas Reacts with carbonate and hydroen-carbonates to form carbon dioxide gas Reacts with Metal oxides to produce a salt and water React with metal hydroxides to produce a salt plus water 3. Define a base. Give the names and formula of 4 common bases Arrhenius theory says that a base is a substance which a produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Brønsted-Lowry theory states that a base is an electron acceptor. “It seems to me that with complete generality we may say that a basic substance is one which has a lone pair of electrons which may be used to complete the stable group of another atom.” In both acids and bases, the solutions are not one substance but they are slipt into the two ions. Such as HCl > H+ + Cl- and NaOH > Na+ + OH- this means that a bottle of NaOH or HCl does not occur however the ions of the substance are in the bottle. Sodium

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