Bang divided the empire into administrative districts that were each governed by officials. He could not rule the Han dynasty by himself, due to how large it was. In the Han dynasty, there was a clear distinction to what class you belonged to. People were either really rich or really poor. The middle class was small during the Qin dynasty, but during the Han dynasty it grew.
-The defeat was part of a larger rebellion that began after the First Emperor's death. -The people were dissatisfied with the tyranny of the Qin leaders and their legalist form of government. -Chinese history portrays the Han as having implemented many changes to the government, evidence shows that the Han continued to rule in the tradition of the Qin, only gradually incorporating Confucian ideals into their legalist form of government. - rose after the rebellions of the Ch’in (stage one) - (stage two) Wu Ti (emperor) brought new economic policies, built canals, established granaries for surplus grain, increased taxes on merchants, created government monopolies (salt, copper coins, iron & liquor) - Debate on monopolies after Wu Ti’s death: “Salt & Iron Debate” - Legalists said: state should enjoy profits from salt & iron - Confucians said: leave resources in private hands for moral purity (government would be corrupted by dealings with merchants) - Confucian ideas begin to influence the legalists (emperors see Confucian scholars as bookish) - Confucian ideas shaped the moral of men w/o external restraints
According to Roads Murphy, the Chinese regarded the Westerners as an uncivilized people, but more ill-mannered than any foreigners, and as potential troublemakers and corrupt beings that will lead them astray of Chinese morality. During the early modern period were Kangxi and Qianlong sat on the throne for the longest time in the history of China, the great majority of them were content with their own far older and more sophisticated ways and religious traditions, and there were few openings for what were seen as alien faiths, promoted by resented outsiders the West, which in the book of Jonathan Spence, The Question of Hu, narrates the story of the two cultures colliding. The two greatest emperors of China, Kangxi who reigned the longest
The Chinese had traditionally been at par with their European counterparts in terms of knowledge, skills and technology since the middle ages. In fact, China had more advanced technology and resources in the tenth century compared to Europe, which at that time had deteriorated after the demise of the Roman and Greek Empires. Landes therefore provides an argument as to why China, with its mighty population, expansive territorial dominion and wealth, failed to surge ahead of Europe and the West in terms of development. Landes argues that China had a chance not only to create a long-term, self-sufficient practice of technological and scientific progression based on its native cultural institutions, but also to discover new information from technology and science presented by the Europeans early in the sixteenth century. China failed to utilize these two potentially progressive and transformational avenues.
The Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties dominated many centuries of Classical China, during which new philosophies and political systems emerged. Chinese history is usually divided into different dynasties, each one being as varied as the other. Each dynasty would begin when the previous one collapsed due to a weak economic, political, or social system. While one dynasty fell apart due to a weak central government, (the Zhou dynasty), another met its end when intelligence was repressed and taxes were sky high, (the Qin dynasty). It was perhaps the Han dynasty, (which lasted over 400 years), that enforced and maintained peace and prosperity most successfully.
Around the dawn of the first millennium, the Han and Roman attitudes toward technology were both self-glorifying, however the Han Empire in China placed more value upon technology and technological enhancements than did the Roman Empire, as evidenced by the constant concern on the part of the Han dynasty over the occasional indifference on the part of the Romans. Before beginning, it must be stated that every single document provided is written by somebody in the upper class, giving no insight into how the lower classes or peasants felt about technology. This provides a very limited viewpoint into the different attitudes, as the upper class was not the majority. Plus, there are no documents from women, leaving the reader to guess what women felt about the technology they used, how it helped them, or was all technology geared toward helping men in those patriarchal societies? A document from either of these sources would provide great insight into the attitudes toward technology in each nation.
Documents 3 and 7 believed the Europeans were a threat to their culture and therefore, attempted to cut off influence from them. An additional document that shows the separate reactions of regions toward Europeans, preferably in a dated map, would be helpful in determining the overall views of non-European people toward these European explorations. Europeans were felt by some as a threat to native culture and as such, were looked upon negatively. China during this time regarded European expansion negatively due to the change in culture many felt Europeans would cause (Doc 3). However, the authors of the document were Chinese magistrates who did not reflect the views of the lower classes.
Article VI refutes this ideology. Article VI states that the only people that are allowed to make treaties or exchange foreign policy is the US; a individual state cannot do so. This refutes the Classical Liberal ideology because this makes government bigger. They also believe the purpose of government is to protect a humans life, a humans liberty, and ownership of land and business- anything more, is unnecessary. Article VII states that certain individuals get certain power- to a Classical Liberal power (in theory) should be distributed and shared; a higher power leads to different classes (like the bourgeois) or to more government, this is not a Classical Liberal ideology.