Eyesneck conducted his own research on prisoners and concluded that being high in any 3 can lead to criminal activity but more so neurotosism and psychosism. He argues there is a mirror neuron in people which enables you to sympathies and feel other peoples feeling, he argues that a lack of it means you find it hard to connect emotionally with others, something he sees could lead to criminal activity. Farmington et al reviewed a number of studies and found that offenders scored higher than a control group on psychotosism and neurotosism but not extroversion. Eyes neck believed people with high neurotosism scores would have difficulty learning socially appropriate behaviors through normal means of reinforcement and punishment. However Blackburn critiques Eyesneck saying it's unclear to what psychotosism is measuring it appears to be linked to psychopathic tendencies but not consistently.
The criminal justice system relies heavily on eyewitness identification for investigating and prosecuting crimes in that, it may be the only evidence present for identifying criminals in certain cases (Wells & Olson, 2002). The strong weight given to eye witness identifications is nonetheless a matter of concern as it eye witness identifications have been demonstrated to be flawed, even when witness confidence is high. Experience has shown that the convincing and sincere witness can often be mistaken. Memon (2008) explains where eye-witness testimonies have been greatly unreliable; where Jean Charles de Menezes was shot by police as a result of mistaken identity. According to eye-witnesses he was described as suspicious, jumped over a ticket barrier and was wearing a wearing a bulky jack supposedly concealing a device.
Anxiety is a state of apprehension, worry or fear. Anxiety causes intense stress at the time of the incident.This means that the eyewitness may have difficulty encoding the information during the acquisition stage of the memory process, The results of research into the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony have been highly mixed. It is believed that eye witness testimony is most accurate when the anxiety level is somewhere in between low and high. There is Research showing that anxiety has a positive effect on eye witness testimony such as Yuille and Cutshall they interviewed people who had witnessed a real life shooting and found that recall was very accurate despite high levels of anxiety. However, the people who were subjected to the highest levels of anxiety were nearest to the incident so would have been able to see more clearly what happened.
‘Outline and evaluate classification and diagnosis of OCD’ 24 marks OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions that lead to compulsions. Obsessions manifest themselves as repetitive, recurring and unwanted thoughts, which cause anxiety and are a product of the individual’s own mind. One example may be the constant thought that something negative will happen to you. This obsession will then lead to a compulsion, which the patient believes will prevent these unwanted thoughts coming to life. For example, the idea that by keeping everything abnormally clean and organised the thought that something negative will happen to you will be prevented.
Research into Kluver-Bucy syndrome supports these findings as humans with the syndrome, as a result of temporal lobe damage, become passive. This is attributed to damage to the amygdala. However, contradictory research from Wong et al (1997) suggests that reduced amygdala size leads to reduced activity in violent criminals. Ashford (1980) suggests that stimulation of the amygdala leads to intermittent explosive aggressiveness, as people with temporal lobe epilepsy become very aggressive. The prefrontal cortex is also part of the complex system of structures involved in aggression.
There must be a punishment for the crime committed to deter it. According to the differential association theory “punishment, if certain, should be swift and proportionate to the crime to deter it.” (O’Grady 2010:70) That the punishment should fit the crime committed. Though, this could be seen as a great way to deter crime, it does not work as well. According to Fagan and Meares “…recent experiments have shown that among persons of color, especially those who are poor or reside in poor neighborhoods, punishment has produced iatrogenic or counterdeterrent effects.” (Fagan and Meares 2008:8)The punishment seems to be the more upset people in the community become and it results in the same crime happening in the communities and that once offenders come out of jail it has been proven that they are likely to commit crime again if, they were in jail for a short period of
Risk assessments are also designed to manage and identify areas of concern, either to the patient or health professional’s involved in the care of the patient. Areas of risk assessment may include suicide or self harm, absconding, aggression or violence, substance use, vulnerabilities and neglect, non adherence or compliance. These areas of assessment may include past risk and current risk factors (Edward, Munro, Robins & Welch, 2011). Risk assessment of the patient is important but also risk towards others. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia are more opportunistic in behaving aggressively or violently towards co-patients and/or staff, which is why implementation of such assessment tools have been put in place (Langan, 2008).
The theory claims that learning crime takes place through observing people (like peers, parents and so on), from there if the person if exposed to more pro-criminal attitudes than anti-criminal attitudes then they are more likely to offend. This was supported by Farrington who carried out a longitudinal study of 411 boys from deprived areas from ages 8 till 50years. After the study, they found out that criminality developed in a context of inappropriate role models and dysfunctional systems of reward and punishment. Although this study seems to show that criminality develops from the environment methodological issues have to be taken into account. A limitation using a longitudinal study is that participants might withdraw from the study which might be an under representative of how criminality is measured.
In addition to this appalling immediate toll, child abuse is thought to have many harmful long-term consequences” (“James Poterba 1”). Janet Currie and Erdal Tekin are two people that focus on the effect of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health. They focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. “The various studies that show that having access to a gun at home increases the propensity to commit a variety of crimes, by about 30 percent among adolescents. Decreases in gun ownership over the 1990s can explain up to a third of the decline in ceime over the same period.
Recent research has raised the prospect that somewhat small everyday lapses of attention can have significant penalties with regard to one’s emotional state, and may even lead to emotional dysfunction. This conclusion is consistent with research conducted by Farrin, Hull, Unwin, Wykes, and David (2003), who examine the level to which cognitive failures are related. Previous work on everyday attention lapses (Cheyne, Carriere, & Smilek, 2006), in which the relation between self-report measures of attention lapses, attention-related cognitive faults, and boredom proneness. One of the results of this research was the result of a strong relation between the tendency to experience attention lapses and boredom proneness, again suggesting attention intervals can play a significant role in