Account for the successes and failures of democracy in Germany in the period 1918–1933 The democracy in Germany from 1918 to 1933, the Weimer Republic, is considered as both successful and unsuccessful. The democracy system in Germany was chaotic when it first emerged, but it became relatively stable until it collapsed during the great depression in 1929 and was then taken over by Nazism. Democracy refers to a form of government that is controlled by people and was a condition under the Treaty of Versailles. The success of democracy can be seen through the establishment of the bills of rights and mainly through the Stresemann era. - It was a provisional government formed due to the abdication of the Kaiser.
INTRODUCTION The Weimar Republic ran from the Kaiser’s abdication in November 1918 through to the selection of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. The system was highly democratic in that all adults, including women, elected members of the Reichstag. The Weimar Republic had several successes in social issues and did well to survive a number of major economic and political crises. However, it never succeeded in gaining enough legitimacy in the eyes of the German people and the Great Depression brought this issue to a head. POLITICAL Successes: Creating a democracy out of the ashes of defeat and the threat of Revolution in 1918/19 Creating a modern democratic constitution with explicit freedoms, PR, female suffrage and an elected Presidency.
Explain how the Nazi Party came to power, despite setbacks, by 1934. The rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party came to prominence by a facilitated series of events and factors which subsequently saw the collapse of democracy and marked the introduction of the dictatorial rule. Although cautious of the drastic nature of the Nazi movement, the role of the conservative elites and the subversive elements of the Weimar Constitution played a key role in appointing Hitler as chancellor in 1933, signifying decisively the collapse of the democratic system. The Reichstag fire of 1933 further served as a symbolic display of the failure of democracy, the consequences of which would catalyse a campaign against communism and flag the way for Nazi electoral success at the March elections. With the Nazi Party now firmly rooted in the political scene, Hitler sought to combine his power through the implementation of the Enabling Act; this law would effectively abolish any trace of power held by the Reichstag and the president.
The election was marked with betrayals and intrigue. Another election period that happened in the year 1824 also proved remarkably corrupt with one candidate, in the race, supporting another candidate. This was a clear indication of corruption within the government even before the election. However, analysis of the 1828 election shows a significant change from a corrupted group of politicians to a civilized nation. The move by the citizens to understand the importance of civilization profoundly affected the future endeavors of the nation.
Source 3 shows a clear disagreement though, as it states Callaghan “struggled to rule effectively until a vote of no-confidence” was called upon. Throughout his government, Callaghan biggest concern was to maintain economic stability but in doing so had destroyed Britain’s industry. As a result of this Callaghan will forever be associated with the Winter of Discontent incident which is exactly what source 3 is suggesting. James, Callaghan is a man of experience is partially why he suited the role of Prime Minister. Source 2 states “The political skills he had perfected in his previous posts were just what was needed” which supports the view that indeed, James Callaghan was a man of experience.
In a way we could see the Articles of Confederation as a stepping stone to something greater, the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution addressed many of the issues the Articles did not such as regulating currency, collecting taxes, controlling trade, effective voting laws, and a strong executive branch. The failures of the Articles of Confederation led to the Constitution which eventually led to the ultimate success of our nation. The Articles of Confederation was not designed to be the perfect document to lead a nation. Despite its imperfections, the Articles were able to provide the Colonies ability to conduct diplomacy and a sense of colonial unity.
How far do you agree with the view that in the years 1933-39, Hitler was a ‘weak dictator’? As Source 5 states, ‘Hitler can be said to have been a ‘weak dictator.’ Much historical debate surrounds the view of whether he can be considered a powerful leader. He was arguably dependent on his own popularity, with his indecisiveness and government inaction being a consequence of this. The chaotic structure of the Nazi Party also illustrates the weaknesses he faced as a dictator. However, as shown in Source 6, Hitler was a ‘central figure’ and thus can be considered a strong leader.
This is demonstrated heavily through: * Architecture * Radio * Film ( triumph of the will) * Meetings and rallies * Speeches Goebbels, minister for propaganda was appointed in 1929, and the rest of the cabnet drew upon a variety of techniques in establishing a positive and progressive view of the Nazi state, Techniques: * Repetition * Stereotypes * Low intellectual level * Slogans * Appeal to emotion tather than rationality * Subtle, subliminal! The use of propaganda was highly effective as its aims achieved: * a single view, a one sided attitude which most of society clung to ignorantly * propoganda riled up the peoples emotions, suppressing logic and with the Nazis use of fabricated stories and figures, the people became deluded * allowed the Nazis to Marginalise people enabling them to create scapegoats, stereotypes, the intolerance and predjudice of certain groups in society especially Jews and communists which created
1984 Quotes + Explanations • “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” Book 1, Chapter III Page 35. This slogan is a prime example as to how the party controls its citizens. By falsifying records and changing the past, Big Brother is always looked upon in a bright, angelic light. However this is a tremendous lie, and Winston is placed in a world of turmoil when he wants to uproot this lie.
Nicks description lacks colour, “ash grey men, who move dimly, and already crumbling through the powdery air,” the specific language used creates the dull, yet detailed description which highlights the poor results of an economic boom in America 1920’s. Fitzgerald deliberately does this to establish the setting of America in the 1920’s. It also shows Gatsby’s rich life in opposition to those who live in the Valley of Ashes. Dr T.J. Eckleburg is the first new character introduced in chapter two. The description Fitzgerald presents of Dr T.J. Eckleburg symbolises an authoritative figure looking down up society, witnessing and judging the events that occur almost as if he were God.