Firstly, there are many factors that can exacerbate childhood trauma that will later on cause a person to engage in criminal activity. For instance, some researches tend to use the term “Adverse Child Experiences’’ also known as ACE, this includes a multitude of childhood trauma’s involving sexual and emotional abuse, child neglect, or substance abuse (Going Bonkers Magazine, Kathleen Kendall Page 44. ) When a child is faced with these many unexplained acts of trauma it usually leads to Psychological changes, which causes Harmful behaviors towards themselves or others (Kendall, Page 45). This could be due to the fact that they are always exposed to physical abuse, and they will feel the need
Adolescence can be a scary time in a person's life. Many changes are happening physically and mentally. You go through so many different emotions. Environment factors can easily influence an adolescent than they used to. Children think their parents are the enemy and their peers know what is right.
Adolescence is a time of egocentrism as the individual moves from depending on family to attempting to develop an independent self. The adolescent moves through this stage facing many pressures including peer pressure, substance use and abuse, dating, sexuality, and change in family relationships. Even though the needs are met during middle childhood and adolescence, these stages of development are crucial because middle childhood development brings many changes and adolescence development includes much personal turmoil. Adolescence begins when a flood of hormones triggers puberty, usually between the age of 10 and 14. The release of sex-specific hormones of androgens and estrogens by the gonads produce physical and psychological changes.
Delinquency and criminal activity in minors is a serious issue that affects the entire United States. Though various programs, punishments and other regulations are in place to try and prevent juvenile delinquency, it is still a prominent issue in society. Understanding the psychological reasoning behind juvenile criminal activity can help parents, law enforcement figures and even juveniles prevent criminal activity. There are various aspects that contribute to juvenile criminal behavior. Most of them are a result of outside factors, which cause emotional instability in adolescents.
Literature Review Social Factors Risk factors. Childhood maltreatment and substance abuse have been linked by both research and theory (Hovdestad et al.). Maltreatment has been identified an indicator for substance abuse. Those who abuse substances usually begin between the ages of 12 and 19, or adolescence (Hovdestad et al.). Hovdestad, Tonmyr, WeKerle, and Thornton (2011) state that the use of substances like drugs and alcohol are used as coping mechanisms for the maltreatment they experienced as young children.
What are some of the challenges they face? Puberty is a difficult time for adolescents and in fact they face a tremendous amount of challenges. Hormonal and physical changes cause sexual maturity. Boys tend to fall about a year behind girls in this department. Other changes that are brought on by puberty are the rapid growth of their bodies.
However stress levels may also increase due to the addiction itself, e.g. developing family problems/ financial difficulties. Claridge & Davis (2003) found that certain individuals who were anxious become more stressed and seek relief in the form of drugs. The addiction occurs as the result of an interaction between action of drug and distress. However we cannot establish cause and effect from studies relating stress to addiction as stress may be the result and not the cause of addiction.
Excluded young people are more likely to suffer social and educational disadvantages. This includes all forms of abuse, frequently moving homes, domestic violence, bereavement and homelessness. Young People risks their health through smoking, drug and alcohol use, unsafe sex and becoming parents in their teens. The community they live in is also a factor on their wellbeing. Wellbeing including a sense of safety and stability with positive interaction and community involvement.
More significant is that cases of cases of youthful offenders are on the rise on among the young female compared to their male counterparts and this situation is raising an alarm (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1999). Children who are at the risk of offending in the future are treated separately from the adults. This is given special attention reason being that they require rehabilitation to get back from the bad behavior unlike adults who require punishment. Intervention facilitates in changing the antisocial characteristics which, if not
When physical abuse is present, sexual abuse isn’t far away, and more than not, the abuser is a member of the family, or a family friend. A study from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, found that 46% of homeless teens left their homes due to physical abuse and 17% from sexual abuse (“11 Facts About Homeless Teens”). Studies have also found that drug and alcohol abuse is often linked. It proceeds into bad and vulgar behavior and the most impact is put upon teens in the household. Substances such as drugs and alcohol used within the household by a parent or child, increases a higher chance of a teen runaway.