(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2005). These are: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Conditions, Asthma, Cancer Control, Cardiovascular Health, Diabetes Mellitus, Injury Prevention and Control and Mental Health. Poor diet and nutrition, combined with physical inactivity are among some of the most significant factors contributing to the prevalence of
To understand the health of a population, one needs not only to take into consideration biological or genetic predispositions that make up the group. It is important to consider the many facets of life experience – social experience, economic/income experience – these too have a great impact on the health outcomes of groups and individuals. Of all determinants of health, it is said that income and resulting socio-economic status has had the greatest impact. The evidence is clear when looking at mortality and illness rates by income level: those in the lowest income brackets have the highest rates of illness and disease, resulting in the lowest life expectancy. Falling into this category is the homeless population of Canada.
The majority of cases occur in minority groups, particularly recently arrived immigrants from countries with high endemicity who often congregate in deprived communities within wealthy cities. In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, people from the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa living in inner cities have higher rates of TB than the general population; particularly during the first years after arriving in the country, (WHO 2008). Within the developed world immigration is the greatest factor contributing to the increase in cases. In England 60% of cases are in ethnic minority groups, which comprise only 5% of the population. Of these individuals from the Indian Subcontinent form the majority, ( online ref), and one of the explanations attributed to this surged of tuberculosis in the capital of London is not only due to the intensification of immigrants living in the cities, but the living environments in which they find themselves , overcrowding, poorly ventilated housing, malnutrition, smoking, stress, social deprivation and poor social capital.
By 2008 the rates for females in Australia doubled to 24 (ABS, 2009) and in the USA increased to 67 (BJS, 2009). Indigenous members of Australia are over-represented in the criminal justice system, this is also evident in the USA for the minority groups of black and Hispanic peoples. Indigenous peoples in Australia include those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent; their rate of incarceration in 1995 was 1764 per 100,000 Indigenous adults (ABS, 1997). In America at the same time black citizens imprisoned was 700 per 100,000 black peoples and 220 for Hispanic peoples (BJS, 1995). In 2008 the Indigenous people’s rate of imprisonment had stayed fairly steady at 1769 (ABS, 2010), while in the USA rates rose significantly for both black peoples, 3119, and the Hispanics rising sharply to 1193 (BJS,
The suicide rate of children between the ages of five and fourteen is eleven times higher than that of twenty-five other countries. Some would say that the United States of America is much too violent. Abuse in America is very bad. An abuser is five times more likely to kill an abused woman if he/she owns a firearm. In addition, in the states with a higher rate of gun ownership, the gun death rate is seven times higher than other states
So far in the United States only Nevada has been able to claim that benefit. The reduction of STI’s including HIV is also a possible conclusion. This becomes possible because of stricter regulation of sex work industry rather than no regulation of the illegal prostitution business. Moral decline is also cited as a con of legalized prostitution. I believe that this comes from a stigma of what is right and wrong according to our own religious views and not what would be best for a majority of the people.
This evidence proves that elder abuse is increasing in Canada. “For those over 65, 47 out of every 100,000 women were violently assaulted by a family member, according to 2005 statistics. For men over the age of 65, the figure was 36 cases per 100,000” (Walsh et al., 2011, p.20). This evidence demonstrates that more senior women are being abused than senior men. The most common perpetrators of elder abuse were “adult children (15 per 100,000 cases) or a current or former spouse (13 per 100,000)” in 2009 (Walsh et al., 2011, p.20).
Painkillers, depressants, and stimulants are the medications most frequently prescribed, and consequently the most frequently abused. “Between 1991 and 2010, prescriptions for stimulants increased from 5 million to 45 million, and opioid painkillers increased from about 30 million to 180 million” (NIDA, 2011). The only possible explanations for these increasing numbers are that either incidence rates for certain medical conditions are rising, or prescription drug addictions are growing. Over the course of 9 years prescription drugs have been becoming easily available among millions of people in the United States. Therefore teenagers have been able to easily access these drugs because of the large amounts that are already prescribed to patients.
Infection rates are high in children peaking at more than 80% in those aged 5 – 9 years and falling to low levels in adults (MOH, 2009). Malaria infection during pregnancy causes maternal anaemia and placental parasitemia both of which are responsible for miscarriages and low birth weight babies among pregnant women. 13.7% of all admissions of pregnant women in 2006 were as a
According to Loschmann & Pearce. (2006). Among Maori there is a large amount of mortality which is attributed to diseases that had effective health care services available. This identifies dissimilarities in access to health care. Access to primary and secondary health services differ for Maori and non Maori.