AP Biology Essay

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Page1 Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships and Detect Genetic Diseases with BLAST AP Biology Student Name How can bioinformatics be used as a tool to determine evolutionary relationships and to better understand genetic diseases? This activity also addresses the following in the revised AP Biology Curriculum Science Practice 4: The student can plan and implement data collection strategies appropriate to a particular scientific question. Essential knowledge 3.C.1: Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype. Learning Goals/Objectives: LO 3.24 The student is able to predict how a change in genotype, when expressed as a phenotype, provides…show more content…
Note that the placement of the derived characters corresponds to when (in a general, not a specific, sense) that character evolved; every species above the character label possesses that structure. For example, tigers and gorillas have hair, but lampreys, sharks, salamanders, and lizards do not have hair. Figure 2. Cladogram of Several Animal Species Page3 The cladogram above can be used to answer several questions. Which organisms have lungs? What three structures do all lizards possess? According to the cladogram, which structure — dry skin or hair — evolved first? Historically, only physical structures were used to create cladograms; however, modern-day cladistics relies heavily on genetic evidence as well. Chimpanzees and humans share 95%+ of their DNA, which would place them closely together on a cladogram. Humans and fruit flies share approximately 60% of their DNA, which would place them farther apart on a cladogram. Can you draw a cladogram that depicts the evolutionary relationship among humans, chimpanzees, fruit flies, and mosses? Learning Objectives • To create cladograms that depict evolutionary…show more content…
Find the home page for NCBI (National Center for Biological Information) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 2. Click on the word “BLAST” located on the blue bar at the top of the page. 3. Scroll down the screen until you find the heading, “Nucleotide” Click on the link. Once you reach this next page, click on the link labeled "Blast". Once reaching this next page, click on the link that states "Nucleotide Blast". 4. Type/Cut and Paste the exact nucleotide sequence you would like to check in the first box on the left. 5. When you have finished entering your sequence, click on BLAST! You should then see a screen asking you to wait 10-20 seconds for the search. Sometimes it is much longer, be patient while the formatting takes place. 6. After the search has ended, scroll down the screen until you find the words, “Sequences Producing Significant Alignment.” Listed in order are the closest matches with your DNA sequence. Click on the blue reference number preceding the first listing (the closest

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