* In certain inflammatory conditions or other disorders, fluid also can accumulate beneath the retina without a tear or break. Aging-related retinal tears that lead to retinal detachment As you age, your vitreous may change in consistency and shrink or become more liquid. Eventually, the vitreous may separate from the surface of the retina — a common condition called posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). It's also called vitreous collapse. As the vitreous separates or peels off the retina, it may tug on the retina with enough force to create a retinal tear.
In more advanced stages, there is also a thinning of the light-sensitive layer of cells in the macula leading to atrophy, or tissue death. Patients may have blind spots in the center of their vision. In advanced stages patients lose their central vision. Wet form: is characterized by the growth of abnormal blood vessels from the chorid underneath the macula. This is called choridal neovascularization.
It also may due to a hemorrhage. - When the clot is block or impaired of the blood flow, it will depriving the brain from essential oxygen and nutrient. B. Hemorrhagic Stroke - Occured when blood vessel ruptured and causing leakage of blood in or around the brain. Basically, the term cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is used interchangeably with stroke to refer to the vascular conditions of brain. Clinically, a variety of facal deficits are possible including changes in the level of consciousness and impairments of sensory, motor, cognitive, perceptual and language functions.
It is a physical condition affecting the brain. It can be caused by various things such as age, down syndrome and genetics. It is caused when abnormal clumps called either plaques or tangles interfere with how the brain cells work and communicate which cause them to die. People with Alzheimer’s also have a shortage of chemicals that help with the transmission of the brain. The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease may change as the disease progresses.
It also regulates fear and pleasure responses. Damage to the cerebellum can result in dizziness, vertigo, ataxia which is an inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, unsteady movements and staggering gait. This can interfere with a person's ability to walk, talk, eat, and to perform other self-care tasks. Other symptoms of a damaged cerebellum include poor motor control, the overestimation or underestimation of force, the inability to engage in rapidly alternating movements, loss of balance and loss of muscle memory. Damage to the cerebellum seems to affect procedural learning such as touch typing.
There can also be changes in colour perception, a yellowing of vision, and a tendency towards long sightedness as the lens becomes thicker, stiffer, denser and moves forward in the eye. 1 Figure 1 shows the main causes of visual impairment in the UK. These are refractive error (31.6%), AMD (36.2%), cataract (24.5%), glaucoma (7.9%) and diabetic eye disease (2.3%). Other conditions included vascular occlusions and myopic degeneration. 2 Figure 1.
Normal Tension Glaucoma Normal tension glaucoma is an unusual condition where the optic nerve is damaged and vision is permanently impaired. What sets normal tension glaucoma apart from most other glaucoma cases is the missing elevated eye pressure level. Causes of Normal Tension Glaucoma: Medical professionals are not entirely sure of the exact cause of normal tension glaucoma. However, some believe it is caused by an especially delicate optic nerve, damanged despite normal pressure in the eye. This can be an inherited trait.
Similar disorders include Nager Sydrome and Miller Syndrome. Mutations in the TFOC1 gene are most commonly the cause for Treacher Collins. Mutations in this gene have been proven to affect the production of rRNA. Decreased production of rRNA causes the death of cells affecting the development of facial structure, causing the abnormalities of the face seen in Treacher Collins. Treacher Collins causes downward sloping eyes (these can lead to vision issues), ears may be undersized or completely absent, no ear canal, middle ear bones can be missing affecting hearing, missing cheek bones, underdeveloped jaw, cleft pallet can occur, these facial issues can lead to problems with speech, swallowing, and sometimes breathing.
Symptoms of strokes vary widely and are broadly grouped. It depends on the territory of the tissue affected. An occlusion of a cerebral vessel in the left hemisphere will cause right hemiplegia, aphasia, and dysphasia (Collins, 2007). They will often have impaired discrimination of their right and left extremity and exhibit slow cautious behavior. Patients with this type of stroke often suffer from depression.
The affect of strokes on the body can range between mild dizziness or slight numbness to impaired speech and loss of motor control. Major strokes can block blood flow to the brain to the point where the brain becomes impaired. Once the brain shuts down, it is no longer sending signals to the parts of the body that require brain operation to function. This can impair heart function, which can lead to death in the matter of a few minutes. According the American Heart Association’s posted statistics in Chapter 12 of this week’s reading, out of more than 6.5 million Americans suffer from strokes each year, roughly 150,000 die as a result from the damage.