Scott and Munsterberg were interested in the science of employee selection and psychological testing. There were others involved as well. Frederick Winslow Taylor looked at managing production workers and developed what is known as scientific management. As a means of developing a more efficient way to perform, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth made their contribution to I/O psychology by the use of designing practical technology for individuals (Spector, 2012). World War I & II used the psychology of I/O by utilizing the skills of psychologists to place soldiers properly in a position that was best suited for the military.
Structuralism was developed by a man named Edward Titchener who was a student of Wilhem Wundt. Titchener was extremely interested in learning about the structure of the consciousness. He believed in the use of experimentation for the science of psychology (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). The second school of thought, functionalism, along with structuralism was the two schools of thought which were dominant in the beginning of psychology (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). Functionalism studied the psychological processes which enable individuals to be able to adapt to their environments; each psychological process has an important role which is their main point of focus.
The great person theory of leadership assumes that leaders possess a special cluster of traits that sets them apart from followers (Judge, 87). Using the trait-orientated focus popular with psychologist, researchers have show that leaders tend to possess high cognitive ability, inner drive, and the desire to take on a leadership role, self-confidence, integrity, and sufficient flexibility to develop novel approaches to problem solving. An individual with these traits would be more likely to emerge as a leader amongst their peers. More recent scholars have argued that effective leadership emerges from situations or crises that invoke leadership skills rather
Personality and team effectiveness According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) a personality profile contains five key characteristics: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and negative emotionality which affect team effectiveness. The main advocates of this approach are Paul Costa and Robert McRea. Each characteristic, which has two sides, shows something about how you react in different situations. However, you cannot say which side of a characteristic is best. You have to see it in relation to other things.
Conclusion Understanding and evaluating leadership styles and theories can allow an individual to assess his or her capabilities. I admire a charismatic leader, Janet Mock, and her ability to influence and shift the mindsets of others. However, my transformational leadership style provides me with characteristics to motivate other to be more creative and efficient. I can identify certain qualities I wish to possess to hone my charismatic leadership style. Additionally, I would be a well-versed leader that has the capability to tailor different leadership styles to individual behaviors of
ABSTRACT This paper has sets of two questions it addressed. The first part of the academic essay defines both transactional leadership and transformational leadership and throws more light on their individual attribute which makes up what a contemporary leader should display in the name of Full Range Leadership. The second aspect of the paper work deals with the weaknesses contemporary organizations face in the charismatic and great man style of leadership. This study will examine how contemporary transformational leadership practitioners have mitigated these weaknesses. INTRODUCTION Transactional leadership theory takes a behavioral approach to leadership by basing it on a system of rewards and punishments (Bass & Avolio 1993).
Emotional Intelligence & Success Professional success depends largely on the ability to form relationships with co-workers, display maturity in difficult situations, make decisions and resolve conflicts while taking the feelings and emotional needs of others into consideration. This skill is called Emotional Intelligence (E.Q.). Emotional intelligence, unlike IQ, is not innately inherent but rather a learned ability. There are five skill sets that make up one’s emotional intelligence. These skill sets include self awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills.
To begin with, personality is the particular combination of emotional , and behavioral response templates of a human being and it is a well-known fact that team effectiveness depends on each member of a group. Besides, it is possible to find types of individuals in the famous “big five personality types”. This theory explains us why do people behave in different ways in the same situations. The theory contains so-called Big five dimensions and they are named as : extraversion (your level of sociability and enthusiasm) ; agreeableness (your level of friendliness and kindness) ; Conscientiousness (your level of organization and work ethic) ; neuroticism (your level of calmness and tranquility) ; openness to experience (your level of creativity and curiosity) according to the Paul Costa and Robert McRae Big Five framework. These are not “types” of personalities, but dimensions of personality.
Summary of Goleman (1998) In Daniel Goleman’s article, “The emotional intelligence of leaders,” he asserts that emotional intelligence not rational intelligence is what distinguishes exceptional leaders from average leaders. Biologically speaking, feelings and emotions developed in the limbic system before the development of rational thought in the cerebral cortex. Emotional intelligence involves the balance and synergy between the emotional and rational centers of the human brain. Goleman, a psychologist who has written articles for the New York Times and has authored books and on behavioral science, establishes five emotional intelligence competencies required for successful leaders: self-awareness, emotion management, motivation of others, empathy, and staying connected. Self-awareness is an understanding of how you feel and who you are; it involves the ability to listen to your deepest instincts and influences your decision making.
Define cognition Psychology is generally defined as the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Cognitive psychology could be defined by eliminating the last two words of that definition—the scientific study of mental processes. Behavior is examined by cognitive psychologists, but primarily as an avenue into the underlying mental processes, in the same way that physicists infer the force of gravity from the behavior of objects in the world. And the study of mental processes covers a lot of ground. These processes include attention, remembering, producing and understanding language, solving problems, and making decisions.