Review Questions - 2: MGMT 3101 (For Final Exam) Section I: (True or False) 1. Hypothesis testing is a procedure based on sample evidence and probability theory used to decide whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should be not be rejected or is unreasonable and should be rejected. 2. An alternate hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter that is accepted when the null hypothesis is rejected. 3.
The type of characteristic and how well it measures is determined. When it comes to validity, the VMI utilizes the construct-related validation. The validation support here requires a demonstration of what it claims to measure. Another statistic to be aware of is the standard error of measurement (SEM). This will report any margin of error within individual testing due to imperfect reliability.
If the condition is false, you need to execute a different set of statements. What structure will you use? I will use the “If” statement because it is a dual alternative decision structure. 3) If you need to a test the value of a variable and use that value to determine which statement or set of statements to execute, which structure would be the most straightforward to use? The case structure lets the value of a variable or an expression determine which path of execution the program will take.
One reason a valid experiment may produce null results is a. the range of levels in the independent variable was insufficient to show an effect. b. the dependent variable reflects a broad range of performance. c. that the experiment is conducted in an environment that is too difficult. d. that reactivity occurs in the participants (e.g., they adopt the role of “good behavior”). 7.
Any time an arguer intentionally leaves a premise or conclusion unstated, it is safe to assume that the omission was intended to conceal a weak or questionable step in the argument. Answer: false Reason: just sometime the missing statement is something so obvious and familiar that it would be tedious to state it explicitly. 4. When an argument is standardized, the conclusion is placed above the premises. Answer: false Reason: When an argument is standardized, the conclusion is placed under the premises.
When a deductive argument is invalid, it is automatically considered unsound. Inductive arguments are judged on whether they are strong or weak. If the premises of an argument are considered to be true and the conclusion is not likely to be false, it is a strong argument. If there is a possibility that the conclusion may be false but the premises are still true, then the argument is weak. When an inductive argument is weak, it is automatically considered
* Is the sample representative? Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not ensure it. It is used to ascribe properties or relations to types based on tokens (i.e., on one or a small number of observations or experiences); or to formulate laws based on limited observations of recurring phenomenal patterns. Deductive reasoning is dependent on its premises. That is, a false premise can possibly lead to a false result, and inconclusive premises will also yield an inconclusive conclusion.
CONFOUND: A confound means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed differences in the dependent variable EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES: Variables that naturally exist in the environment that may have some systematic effect on the dependent variable DEMAND CHARACTERISTIC: Experimental design element or procedure that unintentionally provides subjects with hints about the research hypothesis DEMAND EFFECT: Occurs when demand characteristics actually affect the dependent variables HAWTHORNE EFFECT: People will perform differently from normal when they know they are experimental subjects PLACEBO: A false experimental condition aimed at creating the impression of an effect PLACEBO EFFECT: The effect in a dependent variable associated with the psychological impact that goes along with knowledge of some treatment being administered CONSTANCY OF CODITIONS: Means that subjects in all experimental groups are exposed to identical conditions except for the differing experimental treatments COUNTERBALANCING: Attempts to eliminate the confounding effects of order of presentation by requiring that one-fourth of the subjects be exposed to treatment A first, one-fourth to treatment B first, one-fourth to treatment C first, and finally one-fourth to treatment D
Rationalism is the theory that some of our human knowledge comes from the reason, unaided by the senses. Basically rationalists believed that the truth could be broken down into two types, by using different logics. The first logic is called the law of contradiction, which means how we decide that to be false which involves contradiction and that to be true which contradicts or is opposed to the false. The second logic is called the law of the excluded middle, which means any statement made is either true or its contradiction is true, there is no middle ground. For example, in the book in chapter 2 on page 58, a statement is made that’’ two plus two equals four’’.