The invincible Jat forts in the Mughal Empire Political turmoil enveloped the ‘Jat-belt’ that stretched between Delhi and Agra in the seventeenth and the eighteenth century. A close scrutiny of documentary evidence indicates that there was a network of Jat forts and strongholds which buttressed their recalcitrant activities in the said period. The zamindars of the Mughal Empire maintained forts in their administrative area. It was only after the Jat become seditious that these forts became a cause of Mughal concern. The intention in this paper is to investigate the geographical layout, mode of fortification and operation of Jats to asses how their powerful sway came about over a considerable area of the “core” of the Mughal Empire and how their resistance came to occupy such magnitude for the Mughal Emperor.
To determine the main reason for the declaration of war, both English and Chinese secondary sources will be mainly used, also primary sources about the British parliamentary debate. In section C, “British Trade and the Opening of China 1800-1842” by Michael Greenberg will be evaluated according to its origin, purpose, value and limitation since it reveals and analyzes trade between China and Britain which is useful for my investigation. “The Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of another” will also be evaluated since it reveals and analyzes the diplomacy between China and Britain. Section B – Summary of Evidence Qing Government’s economic policies and trade with Britian In 1757, Emperor Qianlong implemented the Canton system, under which all foreign ships were only allowed to anchor in Guangdong. Foreign merchants
Anindya Sundar Polley, Ph.D. Research Scholar, GGV, Bilaspur 1|Page A Journey from Colonial ‘frying pan’ to Neo-colonial ‘fire’: an analysis of the post-colonial identity crisis; with special reference to Paul Scott’s The Day of the Scorpion(1968) and Arvind Adiga’s The White Tiger(2008). Edward Said first uses the term „colonial discourse‟ in his Orientalism, which greatly implicates the ideas of centrality of Europe; an idea which is operated as the instrument of power. It enables the colonizers to believe that only their own Anglo European cultures are civilized and sophisticated, which gives rise to „othering‟. However, the ruling class, by hook (by exercising military force) or by crook (by hegemonic power, where without any active persuasion, by a more subtle and inclusive power over education media etc. [e.g.
Translation and Indian Literature: Some Reflections Abstract The paper attempts to lay out the role of translation on interhuman space at various times and places in the world in general and in the Indian situation in particular. Renaissances in various parts of the world were a function of translation into those languages. Translation has an undoubted place in the history of ideas and the history of translation is the history of human civilization and (mis) understanding.The paper goes on to talk about the Indian situation in particular, both endotropic (=one Indian language into another) and exotropic(= Indian language into English).It elucidates the originary moments of translation in Indian history and concludes that translation, the impressionable interface that it is of cultural traffic, is a great tool of intercultural synergy. The history of translation is the history of human civilization and understanding, and sometimes of misunderstanding. Stories travel from culture to culture, and their transmission through translation takes innumerable forms.
For instance the fragmented element of the narrative can both reflect Offreds 'state of mind' and contribute to the suggestions about Gilead as a nation/ society. The autobiographical narrative itself acts as a rebellion against Offreds dystopia. This is the primary function of the novel which must be considered. It is important to acknowledge that this is not a neutral description of events therefore the focus remains on Atwood's message rather than the issues of any fictional dystopia. Atwood reveals Offreds 'state of mind' through the use of flashbacks.
Discuss E.M Forster’s treatment of problems with love and friendship in the novel A Passage to India 10 September 2012 The difficulties of obtaining love and friendship in the novel A Passage to India is a central theme, highlighted by the fact that the author, E.M Forster, begins and ends the novel with discussions pertaining to that exact question. The first time the reader is introduced to any characters or dialogue in the novel is in chapter two. Aziz, Hamidullah and Mahmoud Ali are “discussing as to whether or not it is possible [for an Indian] to be friends with an Englishmen.” (Forster, 2005:8) This rather immediately indicates to the reader that this is the pivotal question of the novel. Ahmad M.S. Abu Baker (2006: 68-69) says that the novel “depicts colonisation as frustrating any chance of friendship between the English and the Indians under the coloniser/colonised status quo.” The relationship is addressed quickly in the novel, still in chapter two, where Aziz is summoned by his superior, Major Callendar.
Reprinted 1998, 2000 © Seán Mistéil 1997 ISBN 1 870471 41 5 Printed in U.K. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data – A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. CONTENTS COMMUNICATION: THE CHALLENGE Accepting the challenge, causes of failure, getting the balance right 1 THE ASSUMPTIONS WE MAKE 9 Understanding the impact of your own and other people’s assumptions, lessons to learn COMMUNICATION DYNAMICS 17 Simplicity & complexity, has the message been received, use of emphasis, formality, humour, emotion, staying in control THE MANAGER AS COMMUNICATOR Channel or gulf, messenger or masseur, involving others 29 BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVENESS What is effective
I will then go on to illustrate a cross-cultural fiasco at a macro level, the Daimler/Chrysler merger, as an example of a conflict of international business cultures at a boardroom level. The reason I chose this subject was my own personal experiences and to bring this into perspective, I offer a few words about myself. I believe that cross-cultural stereotyping can lead to a “self-fulfilling prophecy” attitude in dealing with foreign cultures. Therefore I offer my essay with the disclaimer that the international businessperson should know that some people will experience certain stereotypes and others won’t. Much depends on your own personality and your own expectations and prejudices.
1.1.3 Did these reforms happen in India? Conclusion………………………………………………………15 Bibliography…………………………………………………….16 Introduction The main aim I have in producing this paper is to discuss the comparative analysis of Indian Contract Act and English Contract Law. Secondly, I would like to highlight that the Indian Contract Act is a codification of the reformed and modified laws of English Contract Law, that is, I believe, both consistent with surviving textual data and plausible with regard to human behaviour. There were introductions of ‘Contracts’ in India by Britishers’ when it was just a country with religious and other traditional
Traditional cultural values in India are high on paternalism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and loyalty towards community and Indian management systems are based upon centuries of rules and regulations from various dominating empires; different religions; a very influential caste system that, knowingly or unknowingly, intentionally or unintentionally, influences the organizational system of Indian enterprises; the British Raj who ruled India for about 200 years; and more recently, the globalization of world economies and its influence on the Indian management system. Things are gradually changing, however, as India continues to be exposed to foreign multinationals and the challenges of competing in the global marketplace and Indians become more open to adopting and accepting Western business practices and institutions including professional organizational and managerial structures and governance standards. When first measured by Hofstede on his cultural dimensions, India preferred a much larger power distance than in the US; however, the countries were roughly equivalent with respect to both uncertainty avoidance and masculinity and, in fact, appeared together in a cluster in the weak uncertainty avoidance/masculine quadrant. The US was much more individualist than India although India was still in the middle on that axis and much less collectivist than other then developing countries. India scored above the average on long term orientation in a range with countries like Brazil and Thailand yet still well below the scores of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and other Asian countries.